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Python is one of the fastest growing programming languages. It has undergone more than 28 years of the successful span. Python itself reveals its success story and a promising future ahead. Python programming language is presently being used by a number of high traffic websites including Google, Yahoo Groups, Yahoo Maps, Shopzilla, Web Therapy, Facebook, NASA, Nokia, IBM, SGI Inc, Quora, Dropbox, Instagram and Youtube. Similarly, Python also discovers a countless use for creating gaming, financial, scientific and instructive applications.

 

Python is a fast, flexible, and powerful programing language that's freely available and used in many application domains. Python is known for its clear syntax, concise code, fast process, and cross-platform compatibility.

 

Python is considered to be in the first place in the list of all AI and machine learning development languages due to the simplicity. The syntaxes belonging to python are terribly easy and can be easily learn. Therefore, several AI algorithms will be easily implemented in it. Python takes short development time as compared to different languages like Java, C++ or Ruby. Python supports object oriented, functional as well as procedure oriented styles of programming. There are lots of libraries in python that make our tasks easier.

 

Some technologies relying on python:

Python has become the core language as far as the success of following technologies is concerned. Let’s dive into the technologies which use python as a core element for research, production and further developments.

 

  1. Networking: Networking is another field in which python has a brighter scope in the future. Python programming language is used to read, write and configure routers and switches and perform other networking automation tasks in a cost-effective and secure manner.
  2. Big Data: The future scope of python programming language can also be predicted by the way it has helped big data technology to grow. Python has been successfully contributing in analyzing a large number of data sets across computer clusters through its high-performance toolkits and libraries.
  3. Artificial Intelligence (AI): There are plenty of python frameworks, libraries, and tools that are specifically developed to direct Artificial Intelligence to reduce human efforts with increased accuracy and efficiency for various development purposes. It is only the Artificial Intelligence that has made it possible to develop speech recognition system, interpreting data like images, videos etc.

 

Why Choose Python for Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning?

Whether a startup or associate MNC, Python provides a large list of benefits to all. The usage of Python is specified it cannot be restricted to only one activity. Its growing popularity has allowed it to enter into some of the most popular and complicated processes like artificial intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), natural language process, data science etc. The question is why Python is gaining such momentum in AI? And therefore the answer lies below:

 

Flexibility: Flexibility is one of the core advantages of Python. With the option to choose between OOPs approach and scripting, Python is suitable for every purpose. It works as a perfect backend and it also suitable for linking different data structures together.

 

Platform agnostic: Python provides developer with the flexibility to provide an API from the existing programming language. Python is also platform independent, with just minor changes in the source codes, you can get your project or application up and running on different operating systems.

 

Support: Python is a completely open source with a great community. There is a host of resources available which can get any developer up to speed in no time. Not to forget, there is a huge community of active coders willing to help programmers in every stage of developing cycle.

 

Prebuilt Libraries: Python has a lot of libraries for every need of your AI project. Few names include Numpy for scientific computation, Scipy for advanced computing and Pybrain for machine learning.

 

Less Code: Python provides ease of testing - one of the best among competitors. Python helps in easy writing and execution of codes. Python can implement the same logic with as much as 1/5th code as compared to other OOPs languages.

 

Applications of Python:

There are so many applications of Python in the real world. But over time we’ve seen that there are three main applications for Python

Web Development: Web frameworks that are based on Python like Django and Flask have recently become very popular for web development.

Data Science (including Machine Learning): Machine Learning with Python has made it possible to recognize images, videos, speech recognition and much more.

Data Analysis/Visualization: Python is also better for data manipulation and repeated tasks. Python helps in the analysis of a large amount of data through its high-performance libraries and tools. One of the most popular Python libraries for the data visualization is Matplotlib.

 

The global demand for data Science professionals is extremely high because of increasing relevance across various sectors. Data Science has become the most-sought skill because the data is piling along with a surge in different tech fields like Artificial Intelligence, machine learning and data Analytics. Hiring data scientist is being carried across numerous domains like e-commerce, education, retail, telecommunication and much more.

 

In the past years, analysts used excel tools to analyze data. Things are changing now! In this modern world, data-driven decision making is sparkling and technology is advanced in the data industry. The tools and technologies that modern Data Scientists employ are a combination of statistical and Machine Learning algorithms. They are used to discover patterns using predictive models. The future of Data Science is bright and the options for its implementation are extensive.

 

Data Scientists must consistently evolve at the edge of innovation and creativity. They must be aware of the types of models they create. These innovations will allow them to spend time discovering new things that may be of value. Subsequently, the advances in Data Science tools will help leverage existing Data Science talent to a greater extent.

 

So what does a Data Scientist do?

Data Scientists influence a pile of data in an innovative way to discover valuable trends and insights. This approach helps to identify opportunities by implementing research and management tools to optimize business processes by reducing the risks. Data Scientists are also responsible for designing and implementing processes for data mining, research and modeling purposes.

 

Data scientist performs research and analyses data and help companies flourish by predicting growth, trends and business insights based on a large amount of data. Basically, data scientists are massive data wranglers. They take a vast data and use their skills in mathematics, statistics and programming to scrub and organize the information. All their analysis combined with industrial knowledge helps to uncover hidden solutions to business challenges.

 

Generally, a data scientist needs to know what could be the output of the big data he/she is analyzing. He/she also needs to have a clearly defined plan on how the output can be achieved with the available resources and time. Most of all the data scientists must know the reason behind his attempt to analyze the big data.

 

To achieve all of the above, a data scientist may be required to:

 

Every organization has unique data problems with its own complexities. Solving different Data Science problems requires different skill sets. Data Science teams are groups of professionals with varied skill sets. They, as a team, solve some of the hardest data problems an organization might face. Each member contributes distinctive skill set required to complete a Data Science project from start to finish.

 

The Career Opportunities:

The careers associated with data science are generally categorized into five.

 

  1. Statisticians: Statisticians work usually for national governments, marketing research firms and research institutes. Extracting information from massive databases through numerous statistical procedures is what they do.
  2. Data Analyst: Telecommunication companies, manufacturing companies, financial companies etc. hire data scientists to analyze their data. A data analyst keeps track of various factors affecting company operation and make visual graphics.
  3. Big Data and Data Mining Engineer: Tech companies, retail companies and recreation companies use data scientists as data mining engineers. They have to gather and analyze huge amounts of data, typically from unstructured information.
  4. Business Intelligence Reporting Professional: They work for tech companies, financial companies, and consulting companies etc. Market research is the primary objective of this job. They also generate various reports from the structured data to improve the business.
  5. Project Manager: A project manager evaluates data and insights fetched from the operational departments and influences the business decisions. They have to plan the work and make sure everything goes in accordance with the plan.

NLP is a branch of data science that consists of systematic processes for analyzing, understanding, and deriving information from the text information in a smart and efficient manner. By utilizing NLP and its parts, one can organize the massive chunks of text information, perform various automated tasks and solve a wide range of issues like – automatic summarization, machine translation, named entity recognition, relationship extraction, sentiment analysis, speech recognition, and topic segmentation etc.

 

NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit) is a leading platform for building Python programs to work with human language data. It provides easy-to-use interfaces to lexical resources like WordNet, along with a collection of text processing libraries for classification, tokenization, stemming, and tagging, parsing, and semantic reasoning, wrappers for industrial-strength NLP libraries.

 

NLTK has been called “a wonderful tool for teaching and working in, computational linguistics using Python,” and “an amazing library to play with natural language.”

 

Downloading and installing NLTK

  1. Install NLTK: run pip install nltk
  2. Test installation: run python then type import nltk and run nltk.download() and download all packages.

 

Pre-Processing with NLTK

The main issue with text data is that it's all in text format. However, the Machine learning algorithms need some variety of numerical feature vector so as to perform the task. Thus before we have a tendency to begin with any NLP project we'd like to pre-process it to form it ideal for working. Basic text pre-processing includes:

 

  • Converting the whole text into uppercase or lowercase, in order that the algorithm doesn't treat the same words completely different in several cases.
  • Tokenization: Process of converting the normal text strings into a list of tokens i.e. words that we actually want. The NLTK data package includes a pre-trained Punkt tokenizer for English.

 

           import nltk

           from nltk.tokenize import word_tokenize

           text = "God is Great! I won a lottery."

           print(word_tokenize(text))

           Output: ['God', 'is', 'Great', '!', 'I', 'won', 'a', 'lottery', '.']

 

  • Noise removal: Process of removing everything that isn’t in a standard number or letter.
  • Stop word removal: A stop word is a commonly used word (such as “the”, “a”, “an”, “in”). We would not want these words or taking up valuable processing time. For this, we can remove them easily, by storing a list of words that you consider to be stop words. NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit) in python has a list of stopwords stored in sixteen different languages. You can find them in the nltk_data directory.  home/Saad/nltk_data/corpora/stopwords is the directory address.

           import nltk

           from nltk.corpus import stopwords

           set(stopwords.words('english'))

 

  • Stemming: Stemming is the process of reducing the words to its root form. Example if we were to stem the following words: “Connects”, “Connecting”, “Connected”, “and Connection”, the result would be a single word “Connect”.

           # import these modules

           from nltk.stem import PorterStemmer

           from nltk.tokenize import word_tokenize   

           ps = PorterStemmer()  

           # choose some words to be stemmed

           words = ["Connect", "Connects", “Connected”, "Connecting", "Connection", "Connections"]

 

           for w in words:

           print(w, " : ", ps.stem(w)) 

 

  • Lemmatization: Lemmatization is the process of grouping along the various inflected forms of a word in order that they may be analyzed as a single item. Lemmatization is similar to stemming but it brings context to the words. Therefore it links words with similar meaning to one word.

           # import these modules

           from nltk.stem import WordNetLemmatizer  

           lemmatizer = WordNetLemmatizer()  

           print("rocks :", lemmatizer.lemmatize("rocks"))

           print("corpora :", lemmatizer.lemmatize("corpora"))  

           # a denotes adjective in "pos"

          print("better :", lemmatizer.lemmatize("better", pos ="a"))

 

          -> rocks : rock

          -> corpora : corpus

          -> better : good

 

Now we need to transform text into a meaningful vector array. This vector array is a representation of text that describes the occurrence of words within a document. For example, if our dictionary contains the words {Learning, is, the, not, great}, and we want to vectorize the text “Learning is great”, we would have the following vector: (1, 1, 0, 0, 1). A problem is that extremely frequent words begin to dominate within the document (e.g. larger score), however might not contain as much informational content. Also, it will offer additional weight to longer documents than shorter documents.

 

One approach is to rescale the frequency of words or the scores for frequent words called Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency.

 

  • Term Frequency: is a scoring of the frequency of the word in the current document.

           TF = (Number of times term t appears in a document)/ (Number of terms in the document)

 

  • Inverse Document Frequency: It is a scoring of how rare the word is across documents.

           IDF = 1+log(N/n), where, N is the number of documents and n is the number of documents a term t has appeared in.

 

           Tf-idf weight is a weight often used in information retrieval and text mining.

           Tf-IDF can be implemented in scikit learn as:

 

           from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer

           corpus = [

           ...     'This is the first document.’

           ...     'This document is the second document.’

           ...     'And this is the third one.’

           ...     'Is this the first document?',]

           >>> vectorizer = TfidfVectorizer()

           >>> X = vectorizer.fit_transform(corpus)

           >>> print(vectorizer.get_feature_names())

           ['and', 'document', 'first', 'is', 'one', 'second', 'the', 'third', 'this']

           >>> print(X.shape)

           (4, 9)

 

  • Cosine similarity: TF-IDF is a transformation applied to texts to get two real-valued vectors in vector space. We can then obtain the Cosine similarity of any pair of vectors by taking their dot product and dividing that by the product of their norms. That yields the cosine of the angle between the vectors. Cosine similarity is a measure of similarity between two non-zero vectors.

           Cosine Similarity (d1, d2) =  Dot product(d1, d2) / ||d1|| * ||d2||

 

          import numpy as np

          from sklearn.metrics.pairwise import cosine_similarity

          # vectors

          a = np.array([1,2,3])

          b = np.array([1,1,4])

          # manually compute cosine similarity

          dot = np.dot(a, b)

          norma = np.linalg.norm(a)

          normb = np.linalg.norm(b)

          cos = dot / (norma * normb)

 

After completion of cosine similarity matric we perform algorithmic operation on it for Document similarity calculation, sentiment analysis, topic segmentation etc.

 

I have done my best to make the article simple and interesting for you, hope you found it useful and interesting too.

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