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Arun Kumar R Software Consultant, India
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An Associate Software development Consultant at a German technological company having 6 years experience in software development. Currently I'm p...Read More
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Optimization deals with selecting the simplest option among a number of possible choices that are feasible or do not violate constraints. Python is used to optimize parameters in a model to best fit data, increase profitability of a possible engineering style, or meet another form of objective which will be described mathematically with variables and equations.

 

pyOpt is a Python-based package for formulating and solving nonlinear constrained optimization problems in an efficient, reusable and portable manner. Python programming uses object-oriented concepts, such as class inheritance and operator overloading, to maintain a distinct separation between the problem formulation and the optimization approach used to solve the problem.

 

All optimisation downside solvers inherit from the Optimizer abstract category. The category attributes include the solver name (name), an optimizer kind symbol (category), and dictionaries that contain the solver setup parameters (options) and message output settings (informs). The class provides ways to check and alter default solver parameters (getOption, setOption), as well as a method that runs the solver for a given optimisation problem (solve).

 

Optimization solver

A number of constrained optimization solvers are designed to solve the general nonlinear optimization problem.

  1. PSQP: This optimizer is a preconditioned sequential quadratic programming algorithm. This optimizer implements a sequential quadratic programming method with a BFGS variable metric update.
  2. SLSQP: This optimizer is a sequential least squares programming algorithm. SLSQP uses the Han–Powell quasi-Newton method with a BFGS update of the B-matrix and an L1-test function in the step-length algorithm. The optimizer uses a slightly modified version of Lawson and Hanson’s NNLS nonlinear least-squares solver.
  3. CONMIN: This optimizer implements the method of feasible directions. CONMIN solves the nonlinear programming problem by moving from one feasible point to an improved one by choosing at each iteration a feasible direction and step size that improves the objective function.
  4. COBYLA: It is an implementation of Powell’s nonlinear derivative–free constrained optimization that uses a linear approximation approach. The algorithm is a sequential trust–region algorithm that employs linear approximations to the objective and constraint functions.
  5. SOLVOPT: SOLVOPT is a modified version of Shor’s r–algorithm with space dilation to find a local minimum of nonlinear and non–smooth problems.
  6. KSOPT: This code reformulates the constrained problem into an unconstrained one using a composite Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser objective function to create an envelope of the objective function and set of constraints. The envelope function is then optimized using a sequential unconstrained minimization technique.
  7. NSGA2: This optimizer is a non-dominating sorting genetic algorithm that solves non-convex and non-smooth single and multiobjective optimization problems.
  8. ALGENCAN: It solves the general non-linear constrained optimization problem without resorting to the use of matrix manipulations. It uses instead an Augmented Lagrangian approach which is able to solve extremely large problems with moderate computer time.
  9. FILTERSD: It use of a Ritz values approach Linear Constraint Problem solver. Second derivatives and storage of an approximate reduced Hessian matrix is avoided using a limited memory spectral gradient approach based on Ritz values.

 

To solve an optimization problem with pyOpt an optimizer must be initialized. The initialization of one or more optimizers is independent of the initialization of any number of optimization problems. To initialize SLSQP, which is an open-source, sequential least squares programming algorithm that comes as part of the pyOpt package, use:

>>> slsqp = pyOpt.SLSQP()

This initializes an instance of SLSQP with the default options. The setOption method can be used to change any optimizer specific option, for example the internal output flag of SLSQP:

>>> slsqp.setOption('IPRINT', -1)

Now Schittkowski’s constrained problem can be solved using SLSQP and for example, pyOpt’s automatic finite difference for the gradients:

>>> [fstr, xstr, inform] = slsqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

By default, the solution information of an optimizer is also stored in the specific optimization problem. To output solution to the screen one can use:

>>> print opt_prob.solution(0)

 

Example:

The problem is taken from the set of nonlinear programming examples by Hock and Schittkowski and it is defined as

=======================================================================

      min            − x1x2x3

     x1,x2,x3

 

subjected to     x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 − 72 ≤ 0

                        − x1 − 2x2 − 2x3 ≤ 0

 

                        0 ≤ x1 ≤ 42

                        0 ≤ x2 ≤ 42

                        0 ≤ x3 ≤ 42

 

The optimum of this problem is at (x1∗ , x2∗ , x3* ) = (24, 12, 12), with an objective function value of f ∗ = −3456, and constraint values g (x∗ ) = (0, −72).

 

#======================================================================

# Standard Python modules

#======================================================================

import os, sys, time

import pdb

#======================================================================

# Extension modules

#======================================================================

#from pyOpt import *

from pyOpt import Optimization

from pyOpt import PSQP

from pyOpt import SLSQP

from pyOpt import CONMIN

from pyOpt import COBYLA

from pyOpt import SOLVOPT

from pyOpt import KSOPT

from pyOpt import NSGA2

from pyOpt import ALGENCAN

from pyOpt import FILTERSD

 

#======================================================================

def objfunc(x):

   

    f = -x[0]*x[1]*x[2]

    g = [0.0]*2

    g[0] = x[0] + 2.*x[1] + 2.*x[2] - 72.0

    g[1] = -x[0] - 2.*x[1] - 2.*x[2]

   

    fail = 0

    return f,g, fail  

 

#======================================================================

# Instantiate Optimization Problem

opt_prob = Optimization('Hock and Schittkowski Constrained Problem',objfunc)

opt_prob.addVar('x1','c',lower=0.0,upper=42.0,value=10.0)

opt_prob.addVar('x2','c',lower=0.0,upper=42.0,value=10.0)

opt_prob.addVar('x3','c',lower=0.0,upper=42.0,value=10.0)

opt_prob.addObj('f')

opt_prob.addCon('g1','i')

opt_prob.addCon('g2','i')

print opt_prob

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (PSQP) & Solve Problem

psqp = PSQP()

psqp.setOption('IPRINT',0)

psqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(0)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (SLSQP) & Solve Problem

slsqp = SLSQP()

slsqp.setOption('IPRINT',-1)

slsqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(1)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (CONMIN) & Solve Problem

conmin = CONMIN()

conmin.setOption('IPRINT',0)

conmin(opt_prob,sens_type='CS')

print opt_prob.solution(2)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (COBYLA) & Solve Problem

cobyla = COBYLA()

cobyla.setOption('IPRINT',0)

cobyla(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(3)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (SOLVOPT) & Solve Problem

solvopt = SOLVOPT()

solvopt.setOption('iprint',-1)

solvopt(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(4)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (KSOPT) & Solve Problem

ksopt = KSOPT()

ksopt.setOption('IPRINT',0)

ksopt(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(5)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (NSGA2) & Solve Problem

nsga2 = NSGA2()

nsga2.setOption('PrintOut',0)

nsga2(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(6)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (ALGENCAN) & Solve Problem

algencan = ALGENCAN()

algencan.setOption('iprint',0)

algencan(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(7)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (FILTERSD) & Solve Problem

filtersd = FILTERSD()

filtersd.setOption('iprint',0)

filtersd(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(8)

 

Solving non-linear global optimization problems could be tedious task sometimes. If the problem is not that complex then general purpose solvers could work. However, as the complexity of problem increases, general purpose global optimizers start to take time. That is when need to create your problem specific fast and direct global optimizer’s need arises.

 

We have an specialized team with PHD holders and coders to design and develop customized global optimizers. If you need help with one, please feel free to send your queries to us.

 

We first understand the problem and data by visualizing it. After that we create a solution to your needs.

 

Please do read to understand what a solver is and how it works - If you want to create your own simple solver. This is not exactly how every solver works, however, this will give you a pretty solid idea of what is a solver and how it is supposed to work.

Python and Java both lay claims to being among the top five most popular programming languages at any given time, with Java usually just ahead of Python. However, Python’s popularity is growing at a tremendous rate, and Python overtake Java in 2018.

 

Python is a high-level, interpreted, interactive and object-oriented scripting language. Python was designed to be highly readable which uses English keywords frequently whereas other languages use punctuation and it has fewer syntactical constructions than other languages.

 

Java and Python have many similarities. Both languages have strong cross-platform support and extensive standard libraries. They both treat (nearly) everything as objects. Both languages compile to bytecode, but Python is (usually) compiled at runtime.

 

Python versus Java:

  1. Java language is more about syntax, if one can forget to add curly braces or semicolon in the end then this will show error as your output. But there is nothing like that with python there is no need of semicolon and curly braces in the end but python follows indentation process so that it will make your code readable.
  2. Java programming is statically typed means that one has to explicitly mention the data type of variable. If datatype (int, float, double, character) isn’t mentioned then the error can occur in program. Python is dynamically typed means if one has directly assigned a value to a variable at the runtime then it'll assume data type.
  3. Java codes are more complex than python codes. Try to write a hello world program in both then you'll observe the complexness of the code, four lines of code in Java and same hello world program in python are of 1-line code.
  4. Python has a large and robust standard library makes Python score over other programming languages. The standard library allows you to choose from a wide range of modules according to your precise needs. Each module further enables you to add functionality to the Python application without writing additional code.
  5. Python is an open source programing language, Python helps you to curtail software system development cost significantly. You’ll even use many open source Python frameworks, libraries and development tools to curtail development time without increasing development cost. You even have choice to select from a wide range of open source Python frameworks and development tools per your precise needs.
  6. Interpreted, with tools like IDLE, you can also interpret Python instead of compiling it. While this reduces the program length, and boosts productivity, it also results in slower overall execution.
  7. Python is considered to be the most favorable language for Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, IoT and much more.
  8. Python has a more unified support model than Java for the first time, and open source developers are focusing their efforts on the latest version of the language.
  9. After working on large projects in both languages, I feel secure saying that Python’s syntax is more concise than Java’s. It’s easier to get up and running quickly with a new project in Python than it is in Java.
  10. The most two popular frameworks for Python are Django and Flask. Flask is a micro web framework, it gives you the basic functionalities you’d need like routing requests without much overhead. Django is a more featured option and can help you build a powerful backend while capitalizing on efficiency and security, Django is equipped with a powerful ORM layer which facilitates dealing databases and performing different operations on the data.

Applying for a data scientist job can be an intimidating task as there can be many things to take care in an interview process — right from justifying the practical knowledge to showcasing the coding skills. While we have earlier discussed articles on how to crack data science interview and what are the things to keep in mind while appearing for an interview for data science-related roles. This article deals with some of the things that you might be doing wrong if ever you are rejected in a data science interview.

 

Here are five things you may have been doing wrong:

 

Not focusing on the job description: The definition of data science jobs is not always the same and may mean different roles and responsibilities for different companies. Some of the commonly required skills may be a PhD in statistics, Excel skills, machine learning generalist, Hadoop skills, Spark skills, among others. The job description largely varies for every company and it is important to thoroughly dig it and carefully look for specific skills, tools and languages. It is important to display the skills that the potential recruiter is looking for so that they can shortlist you easily.

 

No specific distinction of technical skills: The technical skills in data science and analytics industry is quite wide and not mentioning your strengths correctly might jeopardise your chances of cracking the interview. For instance, it might not be apt to just say machine learning skills as it might include a whole spectrum of things ranging from linear regression to neural networks. And these sub-areas might further require knowledge of specific tools and software such as Python, Keras, R or Pandas. It is always advisable to give specific skills that you master than describing generic skills as might confuse recruiters of the exact skills that you pose.

 

Incorrect information and rephrasing work experience: To suit the data science job roles, many a times candidates rephrase their previous work experiences such as in the IT or software domains to present it as data science job roles, which might disguise your abilities initially but expose the depth and understanding of the skills later. You might have included job description aligning in a way that suits data science job roles but you might not have a deeper experience in it, which may get noticeable by recruiters during a one-to-one interaction. Mentioning of incorrect or misleading facts may also lead to recruiters rejecting you. For instance, the resume may state achieved an accuracy of say 90% on the test run, but what are the baseline and state-of-the-art score for this dataset to claim these numbers?

 

No mention about the projects that you have worked on from the scratch: Many times the only projects that a candidate mention in a resume are the ones they have done on Kaggle. While Kaggle is a platform for a lot of researchers to explore avenues in data science, it also serves as a source of practice for people who aren’t a pro in data science field and are trying to make a transition, mentions a recruiter in one of the forums. There are different kinds of the audience at Kaggle such as those who are playing around with the dataset or getting to know how problem-solving in data science works like, without having actual experience in solving or creating a new data science problems. So, listing just Kaggle project might be good but not definitive of how good your data science skills are. Even if it a Kaggle project, it is better if it is done from scratch. Other than that, it is important to mention the projects that you have worked on. It gives recruiters a chance to understand the problems you faced and the way you approached the problem, thereby giving them a glance at your problem-solving abilities.

 

The resume is full of buzzwords and no concrete proof of your skills: While the resume may suit the job description, but there are chances that you are rejected if there are too many buzzwords in the resume and no concrete way to prove that you actually pose those skills. You may mention in the resume that you have had experience with Hadoop, Excel or certain areas, but if you have showcased it real-time on platforms such as GitHub, it convinces the potential employers of the skills you have. They can look through various projects you have been a part of and see how you have dealt with real data. Hiring managers like to see the time that a candidate has spent from start to finish. Having a portfolio gives recruiters just that. There may be fancy sounding terms in the resume, but if you don’t have a proof to showcase it, you might be rejected for a potential data science job role.

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