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Top 27 Cal Specialists on 18 Aug 2019 on Toogit. Cal Specialists on Toogit are highly skilled and talented. Hiring Cal Specialists on Toogit is quite affordable as compared to a full-time employee and you can save upto 50% in business cost by hiring Cal Specialists on Toogit. Hiring Cal Specialists on Toogit is 100% safe as the money is released to the Freelancer only after you are 100% satisfied with the work.

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Sibin L.Web Application Developer, India
$10 /hr
1 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I am certified Web developer having a 1+ years of experience. I code in PHP mainly.
Hiren P.Web Hosting specialist - cPanel, India
$6 /hr
5 Years Exp.
0 Followers
Working with Web hosting services for last 5 years
Praveen B.hard working, India
$20 /hr
6 Years Exp.
0 Followers
Good at Engineering drawings .knows more 4 cad softwares.and good at drawing reading and 3d modeling and 2d drafting.
Akshay Mechanical design engineer, India
$9 /hr
5 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I have been working with India's largest automobile company as a senior manager in R&D. My some key responsibilities are driving a project wh...Read More
Naeem Mushtaq Sr. Full Stack Php developer, Pakistan
$24 /hr
9 Years Exp.
0 Followers
As an experienced(+8-years) developer, I have good command over PHP/ MySQL/ jQuery,Laravel 5.x, CakePHP, CodeIgniter, Yii, VueJs, AngularJS(1/2/4),CS-...Read More
I am a Linux System administrator for more than 10 years. So far worked in more than 30 web hosting companies as a system administrator. I have extens...Read More
I am highly skilled , enthusiastic , self -motivated certified professional Mechanical Engineer with a great successful experience of full 12 years, M...Read More
Vaishnavi D.Electrical designing, India
$9 /hr
3 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I have learned eplan software ,AutoCAD 2D , know panel layout designing ,BOM generation ,terminal diagram
Akshita M.Activewear Designer, India
$26 /hr
3 Years Exp.
0 Followers
Akshita Masrani is a multi-disciplinary designer currently working as an Activewear Designer at Myriad, an Indian fashion-forward activewear brand. Sh...Read More
I am a php developer with over 4 years of experience building and maintaining several business solutions for various clients and companies. I have ex...Read More
Satish Rathour Front End & CMS Developer, India
$5 /hr
7 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I am a WordPress / front-end and back-end developer. I have vast experience in Web Design, Web Development, WordPress, Shopify, HTML5, CSS3, and Resp...Read More
Prashant Linux System Administrator, India
$16 /hr
9 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I am Graduate from Pune University, India. With over 9 combined years in cPanel/WHM, Linux System Administration. Skills :- WHM/cPanel VestaCP Apache/...Read More
Umesh Kumar Architecture Drawings., India
$0 /hr
2 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I am an architect assistant with 3 year of Diploma. I am an expert in cad drawings with an experience of 2 year in a MNC company. I can hndle archite...Read More
CAD 
Charanjeet Singh Designer, India
$9 /hr
0 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I just completed my Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering and have a decent command in Designing Software such as AutoDesk Inventor Profess...Read More
Alameen Engineering graduate, India
$11 /hr
3 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I am a mechanical engineering graduate who is currently specializing on online courses dealing with programming and mathematics
Sandip Civil Engineer, India
$2 /hr
5 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I am civil engineer working in reputed construction company since last 7 years. i have vast experience in civil building design
Tapasvi Design Engineer, India
$5 /hr
0 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I am a 3rd year Mechanical engineering student. I am very good at Cad designing.
Sagar Chauhan cPanel Server Management, India
$5 /hr
1 Years Exp.
1 Followers
I can set up a new server with Cpanel with A to Z configuration. I can developer Android WebView App. I can set up your WHMCS Software. I can migrate...Read More
Premkumar Technician, India
$6 /hr
2 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I am a Certified Design Engineer, I Had Gained knowledge and hands on Experience on Data Entry with an Experience of 2+ years.
Tariq Ali Khan Jewelry cad designer , Pakistan
$5 /hr
12 Years Exp.
0 Followers
Hello, hope you will be doing great .my name is Tariq Ali Khan, i am a jewelry 3d cad designer . i have worked with many jewelry designers doing th...Read More
Ayoub CAD designer, Morocco
$1 /hr
0 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I'm an engineering student at MEg in mechatronics and manufacturing field and graduated in bachelor of science in mechanical engineering havin...Read More
Sampally Mechanical Design Engineer, India
$12 /hr
13 Years Exp.
0 Followers
Product Designing: • Familiar with the essentials of product development in a manufacturing set up. • Design calculations for Machinery Equipments...Read More
Mohammadu Bello Product Developer, Malaysia
$20 /hr
3 Years Exp.
0 Followers
i am a professional product developer that uses cutting edge aerospace development techniques to apply in various fields ranging from agriculture to e...Read More
Suryakant Technical Cosultant, India
$17 /hr
9 Years Exp.
0 Followers
 3D Solid Modelling  Reverse Engineering Support & Training.  Macro Programming  Technical Troubleshoot Article Writer.  Installation &am...Read More
Jam Francia Revit Architect | BIM Specialist, Philippines
/hr
8 Years Exp.
0 Followers
i am a revit modeller for more than 5 years. i have been engaged on projects with different disciplines
Sathriyan S.Hosting supporter , India
$2 /hr
5 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I have 5+ years experience in hosting support. Can handle cpanel servers, vps, dedicated servers, ssL install and renewal, IP configuration and d...Read More
Shees Mechanical Engineer, Pakistan
$15 /hr
1 Years Exp.
0 Followers
I am a Mechanical Engineer. Client Satisfaction is First Priority.
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Popular How-To's in Cal category


 
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Python scipy provides a good number of optimizers/solvers. You can use these optimizers to solve various non-linear and linear equations. However, sometimes things might get tricky...

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What is technical writer?

A technical writer is someone who produces documentation that explains the treatment, functions, and/or design of a product or service under development or currently in use to help the user, either a consumer or technician, best understand the product or service.
A technical writer's goal is to provide as much information as humanly possible in a readable and user-friendly way. It's important to remain impartial as a technical writer, because doing so helps the user in the end. The technical writer will not be around to explain anything that is unclear to the user upon reading. That means it also needs to answer every question the user might have upon reading it before the user can even ask it.

What does Technical/Content writers actually do?

A technical writer is responsible for creating content for journal articles, technical and instructional manuals, training guides, and assessments. They organize content into a document that can be easily understood. They often interact with other technical writers or subject matter experts to ensure accuracy of information.
Technical writers gather and help develop technical information for various companies, manufactures, designers, or clients. A technical writer can be found employed in a variety of locations but mostly work in engineering and computer companies on a full-time basis.

What to look for in a contract technical writer?

This may vary from situation to situation, but some of the considerations should be:

  • Overall Technical Writing Experience:You are hiring a temporary contract writer, not an employee. So, you may want to focus on senior writers with five or more years of experience.
  • Industry/Subject Matter Experience:A decent technical writer doesn't need to be an expert in your field. However, if you're hiring a temporary writer, why not look for someone who understands the topic area and nomenclature that may hit the ground running.
  • Writing Ability: Obviously this is a priority, even if the candidate is also an experienced and successful contract technical writer, he/she still might not have the writing style you are trying to find. So ask for writing samples and/or ask the candidate to organize a short one- or two-page writing assignment.
  • Personality fit: This is not as important as hiring a staff writer, but depending on the length of the project, personality should be a consideration. At least one interview ought to be conducted with one or all of the persons involved with the project.
  • Rate: Depending on skills, experience, and geographic location, most contract technical writers in the U.S. charge between $40- $70/hr.
  • Availability and Time Requirements: Is this a full-time, 40-hour-per-week need, or a project with varied hours.
  • Tool Experience: Most writers will tell you that experience with a certain software tool is of little importance, since most can learn new tools relatively quickly. However, as with industry and/or subject matter experience, a writer with experience with the appropriate tools will probably be more efficient at the onset of a new project, saving you time and money.
  • Other Skills and Experience: Project management, translation, Information Mapping, Instructional Design, HTML, online help, among others may be important to your project, and may even be the reason for hiring a contract writer.

Which Skill Sets are Important for a Technical Writer?

Technical writer requires a mastery of a certain set of skills

  • Writing skills - For a technical writer, writing skills will never be overlooked. The technical writer still needs to write in a clear and concise manner and to be able to convey information appropriately for a variety of audiences.
  • Technical skills - The technical skill set of a technical writer depends greatly on the subject matter, product or service that requires documentation.
  • Tools skills - A technical writer needs to know his or her way around computer systems, since they are used to produce documentation in a variety of formats. Specific tool knowledge, like Adobe FrameMaker, MS Word, MadCap Flare, RoboHelp, and even PageMaker and Quark extremely depends on the tools the organization has come to rely on in order to provide its technical documentation.
  • Design skills - An appreciation for the visual can be an important part of the skill set of a technical writer. Even the earliest technical documents didn’t consist of just the written word. To a growing extent the technical writer needs an appreciation for graphics and formatting as well as illustration skills.
  • Usability and testing skills - A technical writer may also be asked to take an active role in usability and testing. Even if not asked to take a role, the technical writer knows that validation of the documentation is important.

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Articles Related To Cal


A chatbot is an artificial intelligence powered piece of software in a device, application, web site or alternative networks that try to complete consumer’s needs and then assist them to perform a selected task. Now a days almost every company has a chatbot deployed to interact with the users.

 

Chatbots are often used in many departments, businesses and every environment. They are artificial narrow intelligence (ANI). Chatbots only do a restricted quantity of task i.e. as per their design. However, these Chatbots make our lives easier and convenient. The trend of Chatbots is growing rapidly between businesses and entrepreneurs, and are willing to bring chatbots to their sites. You might also produce it yourself using Python.

 

How do chatbots work?

There are broadly two variants of chatbotsRule-Based and Self learning.

  1. In a Rule-based approach, a bot answers questions based on some rules on that it is trained on. The rules outlined could be very easy to very complicated. The bots will handle easy queries but fail to manage complicated ones.
  2. The Self learning bots are those that use some Machine Learning-based approaches and are positively a lot of economical than rule-based bots. These bots may be of additional two types: Retrieval based or Generative.
    1. In retrieval-based models, Chatbot uses the message and context of conversation for selecting the best response from a predefined list of bot messages.
    2. Generative bots can generate the answers and not always reply with one of the answers from a set of answers. This makes them more intelligent as they take word by word from the query and generates the answers.

 

Building a chatbot using Python

NLP:

The field of study that focuses on the interactions between human language and computers is called Natural Language Processing. NLP is a way for computers to analyze, understand, and derive meaning from human language in a smart and useful way. However, if you are new to NLP, you can read Natural Language Processing in Python.

 

NLTK:

NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit) is a leading platform for building Python programs to work with human language data. It provides easy-to-use lexical resources such as WordNet, along with a suite of text processing libraries.

 

Importing necessary libraries

import nltk 

import numpy as np 

import random 

import string # to process standard python strings

 

Copy the content in text file named ‘chatbot.txt’, read in the text file and convert the entire file content into a list of sentences and a list of words for further pre-processing.

 

f=open('chatbot.txt','r',errors = 'ignore')

raw=f.read()

raw=raw.lower()# converts to lowercase

nltk.download('punkt') # first-time use only

nltk.download('wordnet') # first-time use only

sent_tokens = nltk.sent_tokenize(raw)# converts to list of sentences 

word_tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(raw)# converts to list of words

 

Pre-processing the raw text

We shall now define a function called LemTokens which will take as input the tokens and return normalized tokens.

 

lemmer = nltk.stem.WordNetLemmatizer()

#WordNet is a semantically-oriented dictionary of English included in NLTK.

def LemTokens(tokens):     

return [lemmer.lemmatize(token) for token in tokens]

remove_punct_dict = dict((ord(punct), None) for punct in string.punctuation) 

def LemNormalize(text):     

return LemTokens(nltk.word_tokenize(text.lower().translate(remove_punct_dict)))

 

Keyword matching

Define a function for greeting by bot i.e. if user’s input is greeting, the bot shall return a greeting response.

GREETING_INPUTS = ("hello", "hi", "greetings", "sup", "what's up","hey",)

GREETING_RESPONSES = ["hi", "hey", "*nods*", "hi there", "hello", "I am glad! You are talking to me"]

def greeting(sentence):

for word in sentence.split():

if word.lower() in GREETING_INPUTS:

return random.choice(GREETING_RESPONSES)

 

Generate responses

To generate a response from our bot for input queries, the concept of document similarity is used. Therefore, we start by importing necessary modules.

From scikit learn library, import the TFidf vector to convert a collection of raw documents to a matrix of TF-IDF features

from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer

Also, import cosine similarity module from scikit learn library

from sklearn.metrics.pairwise import cosine_similarity

This will be used to find the similarity between words entered by the user and therefore the words within the corpus. This can be the simplest possible implementation of a chatbot.

Define a function response that searches the user’s vocalization for one or more known keywords and returns one of several possible responses. If it doesn’t find the input matching any of the keywords, it returns a response: “I’m sorry! I don’t understand you”

 

def response(user_response):

robo_response=''

sent_tokens.append(user_response)

TfidfVec = TfidfVectorizer(tokenizer=LemNormalize, stop_words='english')

tfidf = TfidfVec.fit_transform(sent_tokens)

vals = cosine_similarity(tfidf[-1], tfidf)

idx=vals.argsort()[0][-2]

flat = vals.flatten()

flat.sort()

req_tfidf = flat[-2]

if(req_tfidf==0):

robo_response=robo_response+"I am sorry! I don't understand you"

return robo_response

else:  robo_response = robo_response+sent_tokens[idx]

return robo_response

 

I have tried to explain in simple steps how you can build your own chatbot using NLTK and of course it’s not an intelligent one.

I hope you guys have enjoyed reading.

Happy Learning!!!

In every era, marketing has evolved based on what the customer is using. If you go back in history, you can see that at times when customers used Radio, it gave birth to radio advertising and marketing. Next, we got the boom of televisions, it is one of the widely used device globally, which allowed the companies to reach a mass audience with TV ads. Even today TV advertising is one of the most used advertising strategies for companies. Since the boom of the Internet, more customers started using the Internet, which gave birth to a new era of marketing originally called Internet marketing, which is now called Digital Marketing.

 

Now a days, we frequently hear the term Digital marketing we all think that we reasonably understand what actually it is. This thinking sometimes limits the scope and opportunity that the complete Digital marketing landscape will actually offer, which is why, when it involves nailing it down, we either turn dumbfounded or get stuck. To come out of such scenarios, it is important to know different types of Digital marketing opportunities that are available to your business. According to Salesforce, 75th of Total marketing Budget will head to Digital marketing.

 

Digital marketing depends upon the kinds of audience interactions. It revolves around managing and harnessing of various types of Digital marketing Channels and many varieties of Digital marketing services.

 

Digital marketing encompasses all marketing efforts that use an electronic device or the internet. Businesses leverage digital channels like search engines, social media, email, and their websites to connect with current and prospective customers.

Why companies use digital marketing?

  1. Internet Users: As per the internet usage stats, 40% of the world population is using the internet.
  2. Mobile Phones: Most of the users globally today use mobile phones for communication. As per a report 4.77 billion mobiles phone users globally, which will increase to 5.07 billion by 2019.
  3. Targeting the Audience: In traditional marketing strategies, it is very difficult to advertise to the target audience with specific demographics & details. Today with digital marketing we have so many customised & personalised methods to target the audience exclusively.
  4. Low Cost and High ROI: Most of the small and medium scale companies rely mostly on digital marketing strategies due to its low cost and high return on investment.

Digital Marketing Types

  1. Search Engine Optimisation: SEO is the process of optimising your website to "rank" higher in search engine results pages, thereby increasing the amount of organic (or free) traffic your website receives. The channels that benefit from SEO include Website, Blogs or Info-graphics.
  2. Content Marketing: CM denotes the creation and promotion of content assets for the purpose of generating brand awareness, traffic growth, lead generation, and customers. The channels that can play a part in your content marketing strategy include Blogs posts, Ebooks and whitepaper, info-graphics, online brochures and look-books.
  3. Social Media Marketing: SMM promotes your brand and your content on social media channels to increase brand awareness, drive traffic, and generate leads for your business. The channels you can use in social media marketing include Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, linked In, Snap-chat, or google+.
  4. Pay-Per-Click: PPC is a method of driving traffic to your website by paying a publisher every time your ad is clicked. One of the most common types of PPC is Google AdWords, which allows you to pay for top slots on Google's search engine results pages at a price "per click" of the links you place. Other channels where you can use PPC include Paid ads on Facebook, Promoted Tweets on Twitter.
  5. Email Marketing: Companies use email marketing as a way of communicating with their audiences. Email is often used to promote content, discounts and events, as well as to direct people toward the business's website.

Digital Marketing Strategies

Here is a list of five simple digital marketing strategies that any business owner can implement to help their business grow:

  1. Setting a goal: Digital marketing is a great way for small businesses to prosper, but going into the method blindly can leave you with a jumbled mess. A lot of strategy and precision goes into digital marketing and having a goal helps you recognise what to focus on.
  2. Creating a Marketing Funnel: The most successful businesses have a good marketing funnel in place. A marketing funnel is when you map out a customer’s journey from when a customer is a complete stranger to once they become a lead, then put certain methods in place that may encourage them to move through this funnel. Things like lead magnets, calls to action, opt-ins and offers are all effective pieces of a funnel. You’ll consider a marketing funnel in four parts: Awareness, Interest, Desire, and Action.
  3. Developing a call-to-action: A call-to-action (CTA) is a picture or text that prompts visitors to take action, like subscribe to a newsletter, read a webinar or request a product demo. CTAs should direct people to landing pages, wherever you'll collect visitors’ contact info in exchange for a valuable marketing offer. In that sense, an effective CTA results in more leads and conversions for your web site. This path, from a click on a CTA to a landing page, illustrates a lot of desired process of lead generation.
  4. Creating an Effective Lead magnet: The idea behind a lead magnet is to trade information. You supply something like a free download of a white paper, but in order to complete the download the individual has to fill out a form that will provide you with more information about them. You’ll use the information you gather to interact with them more as they progress through your funnel.
  5. Driving Traffic: There a variety of ways you can drive traffic to your website.
  • Quality Content: Use content like blog posts, press releases and articles on authority websites. Insert links to various places on your web site inside this content to create your brand name through exposure and drive traffic to your website.
  • Keyword Strategy: Inserting related keywords into content will help your content and website show up in more search results, this leads to higher volumes of web traffic.
  • Website Optimisation: Ensuring that your website is optimised and functioning at its best is essential. People don’t want to visit a website that doesn’t work properly.
  • Social Media: Use engaging social media posts to attract more traffic to your site. Using pictures, video, and other relevant media will help your posts get more engagement.

 

We have many different specialisations so you will have different options to start your career.

  1. Digital marketing strategist
  2. Digital marketing executive
  3. SEO analyst
  4. Social media specialist
  5. Google AdWords specialist
  6. Email marketing specialist
  7. Web Analyst
  8. Online reputation manager

As you know, JavaScript is the top programming language in the world, the language of the web, of mobile hybrid apps (like PhoneGap or Appcelerator), of the server side (like NodeJS or Wakanda) and has many other implementations. It’s also the starting point for many new developers to the world of programming, as it can be used to display a simple alert in the web browser but also to control a robot (using nodebot, or nodruino). The developers who master JavaScript and write organized and performant code have become the most sought after in the job market.

 

In this article, I’ll share a set of JavaScript tips, tricks and best practices that should be known by all JavaScript developers regardless of their browser/engine or the SSJS (Server Side JavaScript) interpreter.

 

Don’t forget var” keyword when assigning a variable’s value for the first time.

Assignment to an undeclared variable automatically results in a global variable being created. Avoid global variables.

Use “===” instead of “==”

The == (or !=) operator performs an automatic type conversion if needed. The === (or !==) operator will not perform any conversion. It compares the value and the type, which could be considered faster than ==

[10] === 10    // is false

[10]  == 10    // is true

'10' == 10     // is true

'10' === 10    // is false

 []   == 0     // is true

 [] ===  0     // is false

 '' == false   // is true but true == "a" is false

 '' ===   false // is false 

undefined, null, 0, false, NaN, '' (empty string) are all falsy.

 

Use Semicolons for line termination

The use of semi-colons for line termination is a good practice. You won’t be warned if you forget it, because in most cases it will be inserted by the JavaScript parser. For more details about why you should use semi-colons.

 

Create an object constructor

function Person(firstName, lastName){

    this.firstName =  firstName;

    this.lastName = lastName;        

}  

var Khalid = new Person("Khalid", "Ansari");

 

Be careful when using typeof, instanceof and constructor.

typeof: a JavaScript unary operator used to return a string that represents the primitive type of a variable, don’t forget that typeof null will return “object”, and for the majority of object types (Array, Date, and others) will return also “object”.

constructor: is a property of the internal prototype property, which could be overridden by code.

 

instanceof: is another JavaScript operator that check in all the prototypes chain the constructor it returns true if it’s found and false if not.

 

var arr = ["a", "b", "c"];

typeof arr;   // return "object" 

arr  instanceof Array // true

arr.constructor();  //[]

 

Define a Self-calling Function

This is often called a Self-Invoked Anonymous Function or Immediately Invoked Function Expression (IIFE). It is a function that executes automatically when you create it, If you want to use this function you can write in the following way: 

 

(function(){

    // some private code that will be executed automatically

})();  

(function(p,q){

    var r = p+q;

    return r;

})(40,50);

 

Get a random item from an array

var items_array = [12, 548 , 'a' , 2 , 5478 , 'toogit' , 8852, , 'freelance' , 2145 , 119];

var  randomItem = items[Math.floor(Math.random() * items.length)];

 

Get a random number in a specific range

This code snippet can be useful when trying to generate fake data for testing purposes, such as a salary between min and max.

var x = Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1)) + min;

 

Generate an array of numbers with numbers from 0 to max

var numbersArray = [] , max = 100;

for( var i=1; numbersArray.push(i++) < max;);  // numbers = [1,2,3 ... 100] 

 

Generate a random set of alphanumeric characters

function generateRandomAlphaNum(len) {

    var rdmString = "";

    for( ; rdmString.length < len; rdmString  += Math.random().toString(36).substr(2));

    return  rdmString.substr(0, len);

}

 

Shuffle an array of numbers

var numbers = [5, 458 , 120 , -215 , 228 , 400 , 122205, -85411];

numbers = numbers.sort(function(){ return Math.random() - 0.5});

 

A better option could be to implement a random sort order by code (e.g. : Fisher-Yates shuffle), than using the native sort JavaScript function

 

A string trim function

The classic trim function of Java, C#, PHP and many other language that remove whitespace from a string doesn’t exist in JavaScript, so we could add it to the String object.

String.prototype.trim = function(){return this.replace(/^s+|s+$/g, "");};  

A native implementation of the trim() function is available in the recent JavaScript engines.

 

Append an array to another array

var array1 = [12 , "foo" , {name "Joe"} , -2458];

var array2 = ["Doe" , 555 , 100];

Array.prototype.push.apply(array1, array2);

 

Transform the arguments object into an array

var argArray = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);

 

Verify that a given argument is a number

function isNumber(n){

    return !isNaN(parseFloat(n)) && isFinite(n);

}

 

Verify that a given argument is an array

function isArray(obj){

    return Object.prototype.toString.call(obj) === '[object Array]' ;

}

Note that if the toString() method is overridden, you will not get the expected result using this trick.

Or Use..

Array.isArray(obj); // its a new Array method

You could also use instanceofif you are not working with multiple frames. However, if you have many contexts, you will get a wrong result.

var myFrame = document.createElement('iframe');

document.body.appendChild(myFrame);

var myArray = window.frames[window.frames.length-1].Array;

var arr = new myArray(a,b,10); // [a,b,10]  

// instanceof will not work correctly, myArray loses his constructor 

// constructor is not shared between frames

arr instanceof Array; // false

 

Get the max or the min in an array of numbers

var  numbers = [5, 458 , 120 , -215 , 228 , 400 , 122205, -85411]; 

var maxInNumbers = Math.max.apply(Math, numbers); 

var minInNumbers = Math.min.apply(Math, numbers);

 

Empty an array

var myArray = [12 , 222 , 1000 ];  

myArray.length = 0; // myArray will be equal to [].

 

Don’t use delete to remove an item from array

Use splice instead of using delete to delete an item from an array. Using delete replaces the item with undefined instead of the removing it from the array.

Instead of…

var items = [12, 548 ,'a' , 2 , 5478 , 'foo' , 8852, , 'Doe' ,2154 , 119 ]; 

items.length; // return 11 

delete items[3]; // return true 

items.length; // return 11 

Use

var items = [12, 548 ,'a' , 2 , 5478 , 'foo' , 8852, , 'Doe' ,2154 , 119 ]; 

items.length; // return 11 

items.splice(3,1) ; 

items.length; // return 10 

 

Clearing or truncating an array

An easy way of clearing or truncating an array without reassigning it is by changing its length property value:

const arr = [11,22,33,44,55,66];

// truncanting

arr.length = 3;

console.log(arr); //=> [11, 22, 33]

// clearing

arr.length = 0;

console.log(arr); //=> []

console.log(arr[2]); //=> undefined

 

Simulating named parameters with object destructuring

Chances are high that you’re already using configuration objects when you need to pass a variable set of options to some function, like this:

doSomething({ foo: 'Hello', bar: 'Toogit!', baz: 42 });

function doSomething(config) {  

const foo = config.foo !== undefined ? config.foo : 'Hi';  const bar = config.bar !== undefined ? config.bar : 'Me!';  const baz = config.baz !== undefined ? config.baz : 13;  // ...

}

This is an old but effective pattern, which tries to simulate named parameters in JavaScript. The function calling looks fine. On the other hand, the config object handling logic is unnecessarily verbose. With ES2015 object destructuring, you can circumvent this downside:

function doSomething({ foo = 'Hello', bar = 'Toogit!', baz = 13 }) {  // ...}

And if you need to make the config object optional, it’s very simple, too:

function doSomething({ foo = 'Hello', bar = 'Toogit!', baz = 13 } = {}) {  // ...}

 

Object destructuring for array items

Assign array items to individual variables with object destructuring:

const csvFileLine = '1997,John Doe,US,john@doe.com,New York';const { 2: country, 4: state } = csvFileLine.split(',');

 

 

What is the difference between Java and JavaScript?

 

These are two different programming languages.

 

Javascript is a language that has gained tremendous popularity as a language on the web browsers to create dynamic and interactive web pages.

 

Java is a language that has got a similar popularity when you build a “backend” system, which is a fancy word for “almost anything”.

 

Despite the common prefix, they are not related; there creators are different and so are their origin stories (as highlighted by other answers). 

- JavaScript is a genius marketing scam that polluted the world of browsers exceptionally well. The browser reads JavaScript’s code line by line and executes it.

 

- Java is a general purpose language that is used almost everywhere, from Android mobile apps and cryptography to OS and cloud computing. Java’s code is stored in bytecoded format and then gets JIT compiled before the actual execution. In other words, it translates the bytecode to machine code.

 

- Java is class based. JS is prototype based. All objects, like Array or Function inherit from the Object.prototype which remains on top of the chain.

 

- JavaScript uses dynamic type checking (checks the variables while the code executes), unlike Java’s static checking system (variables are verified at compile time), which is more bug free.

 

- The word “Script.” It’s a joke, in case you didn’t get it.

 

 

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