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Articles Related To L


Over the last year or so, programming languages have regularly been prefixed with a curious word: modern, Modern Java. But what exactly does modern mean when used in this way?

 

When someone talks about modern languages, they're really just talking about how refined, how advanced and how convenient a programming language is. This also means that the language is capable enough not just to solve problems of the present, but of the future as well. A long line of features like scalability, being cloud-ready, and supporting newer paradigms and architectures is expected of a "modern" programming language.

 

Today, in fact, java is the most used runtime platform on enterprise systems (more than 97% of desktops). But more than that, its virtual machine powers packages and custom business applications, and a wide array of mobile and other embedded platforms.

 

Currently, according to Oracle, more than 3 billion devices run Java in some form. Most major companies use Java for some of their functions and Java server applications are processing tens of millions of requests each day.

 

Why java is so popular?

One of the most important reasons why Java is so popular is the platform independence. Java is a concurrent, class-based, and object-oriented programming language. It was initially designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible, which lead to the term "write once, run anywhere" (WORA). This means that compiled Java code can run on all platforms with no need for recompiling the code.

 

Java-based applications are known for their speed and scalability. Its efficient processing speeds are used in software, computer games, and mobile Apps. Java supports Multithreading. Multithreading means handling more than one job at a time, so get more process get done in less time than it could with just one thread. Java is also a statically typed language, so that it brings a much greater degree of safety and stability to its programs compared to other popular languages. This safety and stability is a necessity for companies who require major bandwidth in their software and apps.

 

Is Java worth learning?

Java is still a relevant programming language that shows no sign of declining in popularity. Most developers choose it up as their initial programming language because it's reasonably simple to learn.

 

Since the language has an English-like syntax with minimum special characters, Java could be learned in a very short time span and used to build appropriate applications. It is part of a family of languages that are heavily influenced by C++ (as well as C#), thus learning Java offers vast benefits when learning these alternative two languages.

 

"Developing programs is a kind of making art, once you learn clearly and spend your time with full involvement; the creation of art became so easy and simple."

 

General Advantages of Using Java for Business Applications:

Programming with Java is incredibly common for banking and web applications. Compared to other programming languages, Java definitely stands out in terms of security functionality and environment. It comes with certain built-in security features such as:

 

Java apps are able to manage their own use by multiple users at the same time, creating threads for each use within the program itself, rather than having to run multiple copies of the programming in the same hardware. Each thread is tracked until the "work" is finished.

 

Java is so versatile and provides robust customized solutions for almost any type of business need. This "referred position" shows no signs of declining, especially now that Java 10 is on the horizon. It just keeps getting better.

 

Advanced Authentication and Access Control that allows incorporating a range of secure login mechanisms, along with creating the custom security policy and enforce a well-defined permission access policy to sensitive data.

 

Cryptography

Advanced Authentication and Access Control that allows incorporating a range of secure login mechanisms, along with creating the custom security policy and enforce a well-defined permission access policy to sensitive data.

 

Java apps are able to manage their own use by multiple users at the same time, creating threads for each use within the program itself, rather than having to run multiple copies of the programming in the same hardware. Each thread is tracked until the "work" is finished.

 

Java is so versatile and provides robust customized solutions for almost any type of business need. This "referred position" shows no signs of declining, especially now that Java 10 is on the horizon. It just keeps getting better.

 

 

Python is one of the fastest growing programming languages. It has undergone more than 28 years of the successful span. Python itself reveals its success story and a promising future ahead. Python programming language is presently being used by a number of high traffic websites including Google, Yahoo Groups, Yahoo Maps, Shopzilla, Web Therapy, Facebook, NASA, Nokia, IBM, SGI Inc, Quora, Dropbox, Instagram and Youtube. Similarly, Python also discovers a countless use for creating gaming, financial, scientific and instructive applications.

 

Python is a fast, flexible, and powerful programing language that's freely available and used in many application domains. Python is known for its clear syntax, concise code, fast process, and cross-platform compatibility.

 

Python is considered to be in the first place in the list of all AI and machine learning development languages due to the simplicity. The syntaxes belonging to python are terribly easy and can be easily learn. Therefore, several AI algorithms will be easily implemented in it. Python takes short development time as compared to different languages like Java, C++ or Ruby. Python supports object oriented, functional as well as procedure oriented styles of programming. There are lots of libraries in python that make our tasks easier.

 

Some technologies relying on python:

Python has become the core language as far as the success of following technologies is concerned. Let’s dive into the technologies which use python as a core element for research, production and further developments.

 

  1. Networking: Networking is another field in which python has a brighter scope in the future. Python programming language is used to read, write and configure routers and switches and perform other networking automation tasks in a cost-effective and secure manner.
  2. Big Data: The future scope of python programming language can also be predicted by the way it has helped big data technology to grow. Python has been successfully contributing in analyzing a large number of data sets across computer clusters through its high-performance toolkits and libraries.
  3. Artificial Intelligence (AI): There are plenty of python frameworks, libraries, and tools that are specifically developed to direct Artificial Intelligence to reduce human efforts with increased accuracy and efficiency for various development purposes. It is only the Artificial Intelligence that has made it possible to develop speech recognition system, interpreting data like images, videos etc.

 

Why Choose Python for Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning?

Whether a startup or associate MNC, Python provides a large list of benefits to all. The usage of Python is specified it cannot be restricted to only one activity. Its growing popularity has allowed it to enter into some of the most popular and complicated processes like artificial intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), natural language process, data science etc. The question is why Python is gaining such momentum in AI? And therefore the answer lies below:

 

Flexibility: Flexibility is one of the core advantages of Python. With the option to choose between OOPs approach and scripting, Python is suitable for every purpose. It works as a perfect backend and it also suitable for linking different data structures together.

 

Platform agnostic: Python provides developer with the flexibility to provide an API from the existing programming language. Python is also platform independent, with just minor changes in the source codes, you can get your project or application up and running on different operating systems.

 

Support: Python is a completely open source with a great community. There is a host of resources available which can get any developer up to speed in no time. Not to forget, there is a huge community of active coders willing to help programmers in every stage of developing cycle.

 

Prebuilt Libraries: Python has a lot of libraries for every need of your AI project. Few names include Numpy for scientific computation, Scipy for advanced computing and Pybrain for machine learning.

 

Less Code: Python provides ease of testing - one of the best among competitors. Python helps in easy writing and execution of codes. Python can implement the same logic with as much as 1/5th code as compared to other OOPs languages.

 

Applications of Python:

There are so many applications of Python in the real world. But over time we’ve seen that there are three main applications for Python

Web Development: Web frameworks that are based on Python like Django and Flask have recently become very popular for web development.

Data Science (including Machine Learning): Machine Learning with Python has made it possible to recognize images, videos, speech recognition and much more.

Data Analysis/Visualization: Python is also better for data manipulation and repeated tasks. Python helps in the analysis of a large amount of data through its high-performance libraries and tools. One of the most popular Python libraries for the data visualization is Matplotlib.

 

A chatbot is an artificial intelligence powered piece of software in a device, application, web site or alternative networks that try to complete consumer’s needs and then assist them to perform a selected task. Now a days almost every company has a chatbot deployed to interact with the users.

 

Chatbots are often used in many departments, businesses and every environment. They are artificial narrow intelligence (ANI). Chatbots only do a restricted quantity of task i.e. as per their design. However, these Chatbots make our lives easier and convenient. The trend of Chatbots is growing rapidly between businesses and entrepreneurs, and are willing to bring chatbots to their sites. You might also produce it yourself using Python.

 

How do chatbots work?

There are broadly two variants of chatbotsRule-Based and Self learning.

  1. In a Rule-based approach, a bot answers questions based on some rules on that it is trained on. The rules outlined could be very easy to very complicated. The bots will handle easy queries but fail to manage complicated ones.
  2. The Self learning bots are those that use some Machine Learning-based approaches and are positively a lot of economical than rule-based bots. These bots may be of additional two types: Retrieval based or Generative.
    1. In retrieval-based models, Chatbot uses the message and context of conversation for selecting the best response from a predefined list of bot messages.
    2. Generative bots can generate the answers and not always reply with one of the answers from a set of answers. This makes them more intelligent as they take word by word from the query and generates the answers.

 

Building a chatbot using Python

NLP:

The field of study that focuses on the interactions between human language and computers is called Natural Language Processing. NLP is a way for computers to analyze, understand, and derive meaning from human language in a smart and useful way. However, if you are new to NLP, you can read Natural Language Processing in Python.

 

NLTK:

NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit) is a leading platform for building Python programs to work with human language data. It provides easy-to-use lexical resources such as WordNet, along with a suite of text processing libraries.

 

Importing necessary libraries

import nltk 

import numpy as np 

import random 

import string # to process standard python strings

 

Copy the content in text file named ‘chatbot.txt’, read in the text file and convert the entire file content into a list of sentences and a list of words for further pre-processing.

 

f=open('chatbot.txt','r',errors = 'ignore')

raw=f.read()

raw=raw.lower()# converts to lowercase

nltk.download('punkt') # first-time use only

nltk.download('wordnet') # first-time use only

sent_tokens = nltk.sent_tokenize(raw)# converts to list of sentences 

word_tokens = nltk.word_tokenize(raw)# converts to list of words

 

Pre-processing the raw text

We shall now define a function called LemTokens which will take as input the tokens and return normalized tokens.

 

lemmer = nltk.stem.WordNetLemmatizer()

#WordNet is a semantically-oriented dictionary of English included in NLTK.

def LemTokens(tokens):     

return [lemmer.lemmatize(token) for token in tokens]

remove_punct_dict = dict((ord(punct), None) for punct in string.punctuation) 

def LemNormalize(text):     

return LemTokens(nltk.word_tokenize(text.lower().translate(remove_punct_dict)))

 

Keyword matching

Define a function for greeting by bot i.e. if user’s input is greeting, the bot shall return a greeting response.

GREETING_INPUTS = ("hello", "hi", "greetings", "sup", "what's up","hey",)

GREETING_RESPONSES = ["hi", "hey", "*nods*", "hi there", "hello", "I am glad! You are talking to me"]

def greeting(sentence):

for word in sentence.split():

if word.lower() in GREETING_INPUTS:

return random.choice(GREETING_RESPONSES)

 

Generate responses

To generate a response from our bot for input queries, the concept of document similarity is used. Therefore, we start by importing necessary modules.

From scikit learn library, import the TFidf vector to convert a collection of raw documents to a matrix of TF-IDF features

from sklearn.feature_extraction.text import TfidfVectorizer

Also, import cosine similarity module from scikit learn library

from sklearn.metrics.pairwise import cosine_similarity

This will be used to find the similarity between words entered by the user and therefore the words within the corpus. This can be the simplest possible implementation of a chatbot.

Define a function response that searches the user’s vocalization for one or more known keywords and returns one of several possible responses. If it doesn’t find the input matching any of the keywords, it returns a response: “I’m sorry! I don’t understand you”

 

def response(user_response):

robo_response=''

sent_tokens.append(user_response)

TfidfVec = TfidfVectorizer(tokenizer=LemNormalize, stop_words='english')

tfidf = TfidfVec.fit_transform(sent_tokens)

vals = cosine_similarity(tfidf[-1], tfidf)

idx=vals.argsort()[0][-2]

flat = vals.flatten()

flat.sort()

req_tfidf = flat[-2]

if(req_tfidf==0):

robo_response=robo_response+"I am sorry! I don't understand you"

return robo_response

else:  robo_response = robo_response+sent_tokens[idx]

return robo_response

 

I have tried to explain in simple steps how you can build your own chatbot using NLTK and of course it’s not an intelligent one.

I hope you guys have enjoyed reading.

Happy Learning!!!

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