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Optimization deals with selecting the simplest option among a number of possible choices that are feasible or do not violate constraints. Python is used to optimize parameters in a model to best fit data, increase profitability of a possible engineering style, or meet another form of objective which will be described mathematically with variables and equations.

 

pyOpt is a Python-based package for formulating and solving nonlinear constrained optimization problems in an efficient, reusable and portable manner. Python programming uses object-oriented concepts, such as class inheritance and operator overloading, to maintain a distinct separation between the problem formulation and the optimization approach used to solve the problem.

 

All optimisation downside solvers inherit from the Optimizer abstract category. The category attributes include the solver name (name), an optimizer kind symbol (category), and dictionaries that contain the solver setup parameters (options) and message output settings (informs). The class provides ways to check and alter default solver parameters (getOption, setOption), as well as a method that runs the solver for a given optimisation problem (solve).

 

Optimization solver

A number of constrained optimization solvers are designed to solve the general nonlinear optimization problem.

  1. PSQP: This optimizer is a preconditioned sequential quadratic programming algorithm. This optimizer implements a sequential quadratic programming method with a BFGS variable metric update.
  2. SLSQP: This optimizer is a sequential least squares programming algorithm. SLSQP uses the Han–Powell quasi-Newton method with a BFGS update of the B-matrix and an L1-test function in the step-length algorithm. The optimizer uses a slightly modified version of Lawson and Hanson’s NNLS nonlinear least-squares solver.
  3. CONMIN: This optimizer implements the method of feasible directions. CONMIN solves the nonlinear programming problem by moving from one feasible point to an improved one by choosing at each iteration a feasible direction and step size that improves the objective function.
  4. COBYLA: It is an implementation of Powell’s nonlinear derivative–free constrained optimization that uses a linear approximation approach. The algorithm is a sequential trust–region algorithm that employs linear approximations to the objective and constraint functions.
  5. SOLVOPT: SOLVOPT is a modified version of Shor’s r–algorithm with space dilation to find a local minimum of nonlinear and non–smooth problems.
  6. KSOPT: This code reformulates the constrained problem into an unconstrained one using a composite Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser objective function to create an envelope of the objective function and set of constraints. The envelope function is then optimized using a sequential unconstrained minimization technique.
  7. NSGA2: This optimizer is a non-dominating sorting genetic algorithm that solves non-convex and non-smooth single and multiobjective optimization problems.
  8. ALGENCAN: It solves the general non-linear constrained optimization problem without resorting to the use of matrix manipulations. It uses instead an Augmented Lagrangian approach which is able to solve extremely large problems with moderate computer time.
  9. FILTERSD: It use of a Ritz values approach Linear Constraint Problem solver. Second derivatives and storage of an approximate reduced Hessian matrix is avoided using a limited memory spectral gradient approach based on Ritz values.

 

To solve an optimization problem with pyOpt an optimizer must be initialized. The initialization of one or more optimizers is independent of the initialization of any number of optimization problems. To initialize SLSQP, which is an open-source, sequential least squares programming algorithm that comes as part of the pyOpt package, use:

>>> slsqp = pyOpt.SLSQP()

This initializes an instance of SLSQP with the default options. The setOption method can be used to change any optimizer specific option, for example the internal output flag of SLSQP:

>>> slsqp.setOption('IPRINT', -1)

Now Schittkowski’s constrained problem can be solved using SLSQP and for example, pyOpt’s automatic finite difference for the gradients:

>>> [fstr, xstr, inform] = slsqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

By default, the solution information of an optimizer is also stored in the specific optimization problem. To output solution to the screen one can use:

>>> print opt_prob.solution(0)

 

Example:

The problem is taken from the set of nonlinear programming examples by Hock and Schittkowski and it is defined as

=======================================================================

      min            − x1x2x3

     x1,x2,x3

 

subjected to     x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 − 72 ≤ 0

                        − x1 − 2x2 − 2x3 ≤ 0

 

                        0 ≤ x1 ≤ 42

                        0 ≤ x2 ≤ 42

                        0 ≤ x3 ≤ 42

 

The optimum of this problem is at (x1∗ , x2∗ , x3* ) = (24, 12, 12), with an objective function value of f ∗ = −3456, and constraint values g (x∗ ) = (0, −72).

 

#======================================================================

# Standard Python modules

#======================================================================

import os, sys, time

import pdb

#======================================================================

# Extension modules

#======================================================================

#from pyOpt import *

from pyOpt import Optimization

from pyOpt import PSQP

from pyOpt import SLSQP

from pyOpt import CONMIN

from pyOpt import COBYLA

from pyOpt import SOLVOPT

from pyOpt import KSOPT

from pyOpt import NSGA2

from pyOpt import ALGENCAN

from pyOpt import FILTERSD

 

#======================================================================

def objfunc(x):

   

    f = -x[0]*x[1]*x[2]

    g = [0.0]*2

    g[0] = x[0] + 2.*x[1] + 2.*x[2] - 72.0

    g[1] = -x[0] - 2.*x[1] - 2.*x[2]

   

    fail = 0

    return f,g, fail  

 

#======================================================================

# Instantiate Optimization Problem

opt_prob = Optimization('Hock and Schittkowski Constrained Problem',objfunc)

opt_prob.addVar('x1','c',lower=0.0,upper=42.0,value=10.0)

opt_prob.addVar('x2','c',lower=0.0,upper=42.0,value=10.0)

opt_prob.addVar('x3','c',lower=0.0,upper=42.0,value=10.0)

opt_prob.addObj('f')

opt_prob.addCon('g1','i')

opt_prob.addCon('g2','i')

print opt_prob

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (PSQP) & Solve Problem

psqp = PSQP()

psqp.setOption('IPRINT',0)

psqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(0)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (SLSQP) & Solve Problem

slsqp = SLSQP()

slsqp.setOption('IPRINT',-1)

slsqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(1)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (CONMIN) & Solve Problem

conmin = CONMIN()

conmin.setOption('IPRINT',0)

conmin(opt_prob,sens_type='CS')

print opt_prob.solution(2)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (COBYLA) & Solve Problem

cobyla = COBYLA()

cobyla.setOption('IPRINT',0)

cobyla(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(3)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (SOLVOPT) & Solve Problem

solvopt = SOLVOPT()

solvopt.setOption('iprint',-1)

solvopt(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(4)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (KSOPT) & Solve Problem

ksopt = KSOPT()

ksopt.setOption('IPRINT',0)

ksopt(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(5)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (NSGA2) & Solve Problem

nsga2 = NSGA2()

nsga2.setOption('PrintOut',0)

nsga2(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(6)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (ALGENCAN) & Solve Problem

algencan = ALGENCAN()

algencan.setOption('iprint',0)

algencan(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(7)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (FILTERSD) & Solve Problem

filtersd = FILTERSD()

filtersd.setOption('iprint',0)

filtersd(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(8)

 

Solving non-linear global optimization problems could be tedious task sometimes. If the problem is not that complex then general purpose solvers could work. However, as the complexity of problem increases, general purpose global optimizers start to take time. That is when need to create your problem specific fast and direct global optimizer’s need arises.

 

We have an specialized team with PHD holders and coders to design and develop customized global optimizers. If you need help with one, please feel free to send your queries to us.

 

We first understand the problem and data by visualizing it. After that we create a solution to your needs.

 

Please do read to understand what a solver is and how it works - If you want to create your own simple solver. This is not exactly how every solver works, however, this will give you a pretty solid idea of what is a solver and how it is supposed to work.

WordPress is an open source Content Management System (CMS), which allows the users to build dynamic websites and blog. WordPress is the most popular blogging system on the web and allows updating, customizing and managing the website from its back-end CMS and components.

 

This article will teach you the basics of WordPress and how to hire a wordpress expert freelancer for building an amazing wordpress project. Here you will also find details about how to hire a wordpress theme developer, wordpress plugin developers on Toogit. With the help of these experts you can create websites with ease. Before posting a wordpress project it is important to know that Wordpress is divided into 2 major modules backend (also called wordpress admin) and frontend (A wordpress site). 

 

What kind of work I can do with Wordpress?

Project Management is the key to successfully and effectively manage every task that needs to be completed in a project. When a team is involved in a project, it becomes essential to have some sort of project management system to keep track of the work growth.

Many people opt for expensive project management software when they need a project management tool. But did you know you could do that with WordPress? Many people believe that WordPress is just good for publishing. But the increasing number of websites built with WordPress for different purposes such as e-commerce is a proof that WordPress can do more than you think.

 

Why is WordPress Free? Are there any hidden costs? What is the Catch?

One of the most often asked question to search engines by users is "Do I have to pay to use WordPress?". And everytime search engines tell them that WordPress is a free and open source software, which is usually followed by, “Why is WordPress Free?”. In this article, we will discuss why WordPress is free, the costs of running a WordPress site, and what’s the catch?

 

WordPress is an open source software. It is free in the sense of freedom not in the sense of free beer:

 

You may ask what is the difference between these two? 

Open Source software comes with freedom for you to use, modify, build upon, and redistribute the software in any way you like. However, there might be costs involved somewhere. 

 

What are the Features of wordpress

User Management: It allows managing the user information such as changing the role of the users to (subscriber, contributor, author, editor or administrator), create or delete the user, change the password and user information. The main role of the user manager is Authentication.

 

 

Media Management: It is the tool for managing the media files and folder, in which you can easily upload, organize and manage the media files on your website.

 

Theme System: It allows modifying the site view and functionality. It includes images, stylesheet, template files and custom pages.

 

Extend with Plugins: Several plugins are available which provides custom functions and features according to the users need.

 

Search Engine Optimization: It provides several search engine optimization (SEO) tools which makes on-site SEO simple.

 

Multilingual: It allows translating the entire content into the language preferred by the user.

 

Importers: It allows importing data in the form of posts. It imports custom files, comments, post pages and tags.

 

6 Reasons why you should choose wordpress for an enterprise site

Building an enterprise website is, by definition, a huge undertaking. The last thing you want is to invest your project’s resources into the wrong framework, which could potentially set you back thousands of dollars and countless wasted hours.

 

 

Naturally, many people are big fans of WordPress! It’s a well-supported, flexible, and open-source framework that’s powerful enough to develop all manner of websites. As a platform that’s now over ten years old, it’s stable and packed with extensible features that enable you to build almost any website or web app you can imagine.

 

1. It’s Flexible, Open-Source, and Free

Of course, WordPress is open-source. It means the original source code is freely available for personal and commercial use, and you can redistribute it or modify it however you see fit.

 

This makes WordPress an ideal candidate for enterprise sites for a number of reasons. Firstly, given its dominance on the web, you’ll have one of the largest developer communities at your back. This means you’ll receive regular security and feature improvements without paying any additional fees.

 

Secondly, it’s easily customizable for your own specific needs from the very beginning. In other words, WordPress is incredibly flexible with regard to any bespoke functionality you need to build or source.

 

2. WordPress is Ready for Responsive Development

Responsive development is what makes a design work across all devices, whether that’s a desktop or smartphone display. Since WordPress enables you to build completely custom themes, your enterprise site can sport whatever skin you need it to. Considering that mobile devices are the primary driver for digital media growth, your enterprise site definitely needs to be responsive.

 

3. WordPress is Scalable

Scalability affects your ability to serve increasingly large numbers of visitors. If no effort has been made here, even a simple website will crash after receiving one too many visitors at once.

 

4. It Offers Multisite Functionality

Simply put, Multisite is when you operate multiple websites from one central hub. WordPress supports running as many sites as you need from one core installation

 

5. It Has Built-In User Role Management

Role management essentially gives you the power to control who can access certain areas of your site. One of the guiding principles for security is to only offer access to the essentials a user needs to carry out their tasks.

 

6. WordPress Has Its Own REST API

We would be remiss to discuss WordPress viability for enterprise sites without pointing out the REST API. Endpoints were included in a recent update, and it means you can now tie WordPress to a number of external apps and languages by using technology such as AJAX and JSON.

 

How to choose a right wordpress developer?

Before you start with hiring It is necessary to catch what you are planing to develop and who is the right candidate to achieve your goals. 

Here I am describing few points which will help you to find the right developer for your wordpress project, 

1. Wordress developer must be aware of the basics of HTML and CSS. If you are a wordpress developer and are not aware of these concepts, then I suggest first go through short tutorials on HTML and CSS.

 

2. Good knowledge about trending database & experience in complex query.

 

Every wordpress developer should be able to do following:

Using a mix of CSS, Sass, HTML, JavaScript, and PHP , a WordPress developer takes a basic WordPress install and builds onto that foundation to create whatever you need for your project. At the heart of the WordPress platform its easy-to-use administrative dashboard, the portal where you, the client, can update and maintain your site’s content.

Review & hire your best wordpress developer.

 

Should I use wordpress?

If you are planing to develope a big project with wordpress. Please look at the following point before choosing the wordpress as best fit for your project.

Using several plugins can make the website heavy to load and run.

PHP knowledge is required to make modifications or changes in the WordPress website.

Sometimes software needs to be updated to keep the WordPress up-to-date with the current browsers and mobile devices. Updating WordPress version leads to loss of data, so it is recommended to keep a backup copy of the website as required.

Modifying and formatting the graphic images and tables is difficult.

 

Conclusion

If you want open-source flexibility and a strong community behind you, WordPress is a fantastic choice for your next enterprise site. Of course, you should still carefully examine your needs and carry out some research to find the best fit for your project. However, with its current dominance and upward turn, WordPress is clearly a tantalizing option.

 

The importance of extracting information from the web is becoming increasingly loud and clear. Every few weeks, I realize myself in a situation where we need to extract information from the web to create a machine learning model. We have to pull or extract a large amount of information from websites and we would like to do it as quickly as possible. How would we do it without manually going to every web site and getting the data? Web Scraping simply makes this job easier and faster.

Why is web scraping needed?

Web scraping is used to collect large information from websites. But why does someone have to collect such large data from websites? Let’s look at the applications of web scraping: 

  1. Price Comparison: Services such as ParseHub use web scraping to collect data from online shopping websites and use it to compare the prices of products.
  2. Social Media Scraping: Web scraping is used to collect data from Social Media websites such as Twitter to find out what’s trending.
  3. Email address gathering: Many companies that use email as a medium for marketing, use web scraping to collect email ID and then send bulk emails.
  4. Research and Development: Web scraping is used to collect a large set of data (Statistics, General Information, Temperature, etc.) from websites, which are analyzed and used to carry out Surveys or for R&D.
  5. Job listings: Details regarding job openings, interviews are collected from different websites and then listed in one place so that it is easily accessible to the user.

 

Web scraping is an automated method used to extract large amounts of data from websites. The data on the websites are unstructured. Web scraping helps collect these unstructured data and store it in a structured form. There are different ways to scrape websites such as online Services, APIs or writing your own code.

Why Python is best for Web Scraping

Features of Python which makes it more suitable for web scraping:

  1. Ease of Use: Python is simple to code. You do not have to add semi-colons “;” or curly-braces “{}” anywhere. This makes it less messy and easy to use.
  2. Large Collection of Libraries: Python has a huge collection of libraries such as Numpy, Matlplotlib, Pandas etc., which provides methods and services for various purposes. Hence, it is suitable for web scraping and for further manipulation of extracted data.
  3. Dynamically typed: In Python, you don’t have to define datatypes for variables, you can directly use the variables wherever required. This saves time and makes your job faster.
  4. Easily Understandable Syntax: Python syntax is easily understandable mainly because reading a Python code is very similar to reading a statement in English. It is expressive and easily readable, and the indentation used in Python also helps the user to differentiate between different scope/blocks in the code.
  5. Small code, large task: Web scraping is used to save time. But what’s the use if you spend more time writing the code? Well, you don’t have to. In Python, you can write small codes to do large tasks. Hence, you save time even while writing the code.
  6. Community: What if you get stuck while writing the code? You don’t have to worry. Python community has one of the biggest and most active communities, where you can seek help from.

How does web scraping work

To extract data using web scraping with python, you need to follow these basic steps:

  1. Find the URL that you want to scrape
  2. Inspecting the Page
  3. Find the data you want to extract
  4. Write the code
  5. Run the code and extract the data
  6. Store the data in the required format

Example: Scraping a website to get product details

Pre-requisite:

  • Python 2.x or Python 3.x
  • Selenium Library
  • BeautifulSoup Library
  • Pandas Library
  1. We are going scrape online shopping website to extract the Price, Name, and rating of products, go to products URL
  2. The data is usually nested in tags. So, we inspect the page to examine, under which tag the information we would like to scrape is nested. To inspect the page, just right click on the element and click on “Inspect”. When you click on the “Inspect” tab, you will see a “Browser Inspector Box” open.
  3. Let’s extract the Price, Name, and Rating which is nested in the “div” tag respectively.
  4. Write code:

#Let us import all the necessary libraries

from selenium import webdriver

from BeautifulSoup import BeautifulSoup

import pandas as pd

driver = webdriver.Chrome("/usr/lib/chromium-browser/chromedriver")

products=[] #List to store name of the product

prices=[] #List to store price of the product

ratings=[] #List to store rating of the product

driver.get("Product_URL")

content = driver.page_source

soup = BeautifulSoup(content)

for a in soup.findAll('a',href=True, attrs={'class':'.…'}):

name=a.find('div', attrs={'class': '….'})

price=a.find('div', attrs={'class':'….'})

rating=a.find('div', attrs={'class':'….'})

products.append(name.text)

ratings.append(rating.text)

df = pd.DataFrame({'Product Name':products,'Price':prices,'Rating':ratings})

df.to_csv('products.csv', index=False, encoding='utf-8')

 

To run the code, a file name “products.csv” is created and this file contains the extracted data.

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