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Now a days, the popularity of scientific computing environments such as IDL, Maple, Mathematica, Matlab and R has increased considerably. Engineer simply feel more productive in such environments. One reason is the simple and clean syntax of command languages in these environments. Another factor is tight integration of simulation and visualization in Maple, R and similar environments you can quickly and conveniently visualize what you just have computed. One problem with the mentioned environments is that they do not work, at least not in an easy way, with other types of numerical software and visualization systems. Many of the environment specific programming languages are also quite simple or primitive. At this point scripting in Python comes in.

 

Python offers the clean and simple syntax of the popular scientific computing environments, the language is very powerful, and there are lots of tools for simulation, visualization, and data analysis programs. Python allows you to build your own Matlab like scientific computing environment, tailored to your specific needs and based on your favorite high performance FORTRAN, C, or C++ codes.

 

Scientific Computing Is More Than Number Crunching: Many computational scientists work with their own numerical software development and realize that much of the work is not only writing computationally intensive number-crunching loops. Very often programming is about shuffling data in and out of different tools, converting one data format to another, extracting numerical data from a text, and administering numerical experiments involving a large number of data files and directories. Such tasks are much faster to accomplish in a language like Python than in FORTRAN, C, C++, and C#.

 

Scripting is particularly attractive for building demos related to teaching or project presentations. Such demos benefit greatly from a GUI, which offers input data specification, calls up a simulation code, and visualizes the results. The simple and intuitive syntax of Python encourages users to modify and extend demos on their own, even if you are newcomers to Python.

 

Python has some clear advantageous over Matlab and similar environments:

  • The Python programming language is more powerful.
  • The Python environment is completely open and made for integration with external tools.
  • A complete toolbox/module with lots of functions and classes can be contained in a single file.
  • Transferring functions as arguments to functions is simpler.
  • Nested, heterogeneous data structures are simple to construct and use.
  • Object-oriented programming is more convenient.
  • Interfacing C, C++, and FORTRAN code is better supported and therefore simpler.
  • Scalar functions work with array arguments to a larger extent (without modifications of arithmetic operators).
  • The source is free and runs on more platforms.

 

How to run Python script

One of the most important skills you need to build as a Python developer is to be able to run Python scripts and code. This is going to be the only way for you to know if your code works as you planned. It’s even the only way of knowing if your code works at all!

 

A Python script is a reusable set of code which is essentially a Python program or a sequence of Python instructions contained in a file. You can run the program by specifying the name of the script file to the interpreter. 

 

This step-by-step will guide you through a series of ways to run Python scripts, depending on your environment, platform, needs, and skills as a programmer. When you try to run Python scripts, a multi-step process begins. 

 

  1. Run Python Scripts Using the Command-Line: A Python interactive session will allow you to write a lot of lines of code, but once you close the session, you lose everything you’ve written. That’s why the usual way of writing Python programs is by using plain text files. By convention, those files will use the .py extension. Open a command-line and type in the word ‘python’ followed by the path to script file and press enter. You’ll see output on your screen.
  2. Run Python Scripts Interactively: It is also possible to run Python scripts and modules from an interactive session. This option offers you a variety of possibilities.
    • Taking advantage of import
    • Use importlib and imp
    • Use runpy.run_module()
    • Hacking exec()
    • Use execfile()
  3. Run Python Scripts from an IDE or a Text Editor: IDE offer the possibility of running your scripts from inside the environment itself. It is common for them to include a Run or Build command, which is usually available from the tool bar or from the main menu.
  4. Run Python Scripts From a File Manager: Running a script by double-clicking on its icon in a file manager is another possible way to run your Python scripts. This option may not be widely used in the development stage, but it may be used when you release your code for production.

 

After you play around with Python on your own or in an online tutorial, I highly recommend to you to write small scripts to strengthen your knowledge. To stay motivated, choose a program that is in some way useful to you, so you can gain insight while figuring out Python. Below are a few ways you can begin to build your expert level in Python script:

 

  • Python Documentation
  • Google and stackoverflow
  • Ask an experience person

 

First, create a very basic version end-to-end. It is much less frustrating than trying to build a super-duper version from scratch. A big plus is that you will have something you can use very fast. Then iterate and add more complex functionality one by one.

 

Second, decompose large problems to smaller ones by introducing functions. Small, cohesive functions are easy to understand, test and debug.

 

Last, but probably the most important thing to keep in mind, is practice makes perfect. Start small, be patient and practice. Happy coding!

As you know, JavaScript is the top programming language in the world, the language of the web, of mobile hybrid apps (like PhoneGap or Appcelerator), of the server side (like NodeJS or Wakanda) and has many other implementations. It’s also the starting point for many new developers to the world of programming, as it can be used to display a simple alert in the web browser but also to control a robot (using nodebot, or nodruino). The developers who master JavaScript and write organized and performant code have become the most sought after in the job market.

 

In this article, I’ll share a set of JavaScript tips, tricks and best practices that should be known by all JavaScript developers regardless of their browser/engine or the SSJS (Server Side JavaScript) interpreter.

 

Don’t forget var” keyword when assigning a variable’s value for the first time.

Assignment to an undeclared variable automatically results in a global variable being created. Avoid global variables.

Use “===” instead of “==”

The == (or !=) operator performs an automatic type conversion if needed. The === (or !==) operator will not perform any conversion. It compares the value and the type, which could be considered faster than ==

[10] === 10    // is false

[10]  == 10    // is true

'10' == 10     // is true

'10' === 10    // is false

 []   == 0     // is true

 [] ===  0     // is false

 '' == false   // is true but true == "a" is false

 '' ===   false // is false 

undefined, null, 0, false, NaN, '' (empty string) are all falsy.

 

Use Semicolons for line termination

The use of semi-colons for line termination is a good practice. You won’t be warned if you forget it, because in most cases it will be inserted by the JavaScript parser. For more details about why you should use semi-colons.

 

Create an object constructor

function Person(firstName, lastName){

    this.firstName =  firstName;

    this.lastName = lastName;        

}  

var Khalid = new Person("Khalid", "Ansari");

 

Be careful when using typeof, instanceof and constructor.

typeof: a JavaScript unary operator used to return a string that represents the primitive type of a variable, don’t forget that typeof null will return “object”, and for the majority of object types (Array, Date, and others) will return also “object”.

constructor: is a property of the internal prototype property, which could be overridden by code.

 

instanceof: is another JavaScript operator that check in all the prototypes chain the constructor it returns true if it’s found and false if not.

 

var arr = ["a", "b", "c"];

typeof arr;   // return "object" 

arr  instanceof Array // true

arr.constructor();  //[]

 

Define a Self-calling Function

This is often called a Self-Invoked Anonymous Function or Immediately Invoked Function Expression (IIFE). It is a function that executes automatically when you create it, If you want to use this function you can write in the following way: 

 

(function(){

    // some private code that will be executed automatically

})();  

(function(p,q){

    var r = p+q;

    return r;

})(40,50);

 

Get a random item from an array

var items_array = [12, 548 , 'a' , 2 , 5478 , 'toogit' , 8852, , 'freelance' , 2145 , 119];

var  randomItem = items[Math.floor(Math.random() * items.length)];

 

Get a random number in a specific range

This code snippet can be useful when trying to generate fake data for testing purposes, such as a salary between min and max.

var x = Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1)) + min;

 

Generate an array of numbers with numbers from 0 to max

var numbersArray = [] , max = 100;

for( var i=1; numbersArray.push(i++) < max;);  // numbers = [1,2,3 ... 100] 

 

Generate a random set of alphanumeric characters

function generateRandomAlphaNum(len) {

    var rdmString = "";

    for( ; rdmString.length < len; rdmString  += Math.random().toString(36).substr(2));

    return  rdmString.substr(0, len);

}

 

Shuffle an array of numbers

var numbers = [5, 458 , 120 , -215 , 228 , 400 , 122205, -85411];

numbers = numbers.sort(function(){ return Math.random() - 0.5});

 

A better option could be to implement a random sort order by code (e.g. : Fisher-Yates shuffle), than using the native sort JavaScript function

 

A string trim function

The classic trim function of Java, C#, PHP and many other language that remove whitespace from a string doesn’t exist in JavaScript, so we could add it to the String object.

String.prototype.trim = function(){return this.replace(/^s+|s+$/g, "");};  

A native implementation of the trim() function is available in the recent JavaScript engines.

 

Append an array to another array

var array1 = [12 , "foo" , {name "Joe"} , -2458];

var array2 = ["Doe" , 555 , 100];

Array.prototype.push.apply(array1, array2);

 

Transform the arguments object into an array

var argArray = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);

 

Verify that a given argument is a number

function isNumber(n){

    return !isNaN(parseFloat(n)) && isFinite(n);

}

 

Verify that a given argument is an array

function isArray(obj){

    return Object.prototype.toString.call(obj) === '[object Array]' ;

}

Note that if the toString() method is overridden, you will not get the expected result using this trick.

Or Use..

Array.isArray(obj); // its a new Array method

You could also use instanceofif you are not working with multiple frames. However, if you have many contexts, you will get a wrong result.

var myFrame = document.createElement('iframe');

document.body.appendChild(myFrame);

var myArray = window.frames[window.frames.length-1].Array;

var arr = new myArray(a,b,10); // [a,b,10]  

// instanceof will not work correctly, myArray loses his constructor 

// constructor is not shared between frames

arr instanceof Array; // false

 

Get the max or the min in an array of numbers

var  numbers = [5, 458 , 120 , -215 , 228 , 400 , 122205, -85411]; 

var maxInNumbers = Math.max.apply(Math, numbers); 

var minInNumbers = Math.min.apply(Math, numbers);

 

Empty an array

var myArray = [12 , 222 , 1000 ];  

myArray.length = 0; // myArray will be equal to [].

 

Don’t use delete to remove an item from array

Use splice instead of using delete to delete an item from an array. Using delete replaces the item with undefined instead of the removing it from the array.

Instead of…

var items = [12, 548 ,'a' , 2 , 5478 , 'foo' , 8852, , 'Doe' ,2154 , 119 ]; 

items.length; // return 11 

delete items[3]; // return true 

items.length; // return 11 

Use

var items = [12, 548 ,'a' , 2 , 5478 , 'foo' , 8852, , 'Doe' ,2154 , 119 ]; 

items.length; // return 11 

items.splice(3,1) ; 

items.length; // return 10 

 

Clearing or truncating an array

An easy way of clearing or truncating an array without reassigning it is by changing its length property value:

const arr = [11,22,33,44,55,66];

// truncanting

arr.length = 3;

console.log(arr); //=> [11, 22, 33]

// clearing

arr.length = 0;

console.log(arr); //=> []

console.log(arr[2]); //=> undefined

 

Simulating named parameters with object destructuring

Chances are high that you’re already using configuration objects when you need to pass a variable set of options to some function, like this:

doSomething({ foo: 'Hello', bar: 'Toogit!', baz: 42 });

function doSomething(config) {  

const foo = config.foo !== undefined ? config.foo : 'Hi';  const bar = config.bar !== undefined ? config.bar : 'Me!';  const baz = config.baz !== undefined ? config.baz : 13;  // ...

}

This is an old but effective pattern, which tries to simulate named parameters in JavaScript. The function calling looks fine. On the other hand, the config object handling logic is unnecessarily verbose. With ES2015 object destructuring, you can circumvent this downside:

function doSomething({ foo = 'Hello', bar = 'Toogit!', baz = 13 }) {  // ...}

And if you need to make the config object optional, it’s very simple, too:

function doSomething({ foo = 'Hello', bar = 'Toogit!', baz = 13 } = {}) {  // ...}

 

Object destructuring for array items

Assign array items to individual variables with object destructuring:

const csvFileLine = '1997,John Doe,US,john@doe.com,New York';const { 2: country, 4: state } = csvFileLine.split(',');

 

 

What is the difference between Java and JavaScript?

 

These are two different programming languages.

 

Javascript is a language that has gained tremendous popularity as a language on the web browsers to create dynamic and interactive web pages.

 

Java is a language that has got a similar popularity when you build a “backend” system, which is a fancy word for “almost anything”.

 

Despite the common prefix, they are not related; there creators are different and so are their origin stories (as highlighted by other answers). 

- JavaScript is a genius marketing scam that polluted the world of browsers exceptionally well. The browser reads JavaScript’s code line by line and executes it.

 

- Java is a general purpose language that is used almost everywhere, from Android mobile apps and cryptography to OS and cloud computing. Java’s code is stored in bytecoded format and then gets JIT compiled before the actual execution. In other words, it translates the bytecode to machine code.

 

- Java is class based. JS is prototype based. All objects, like Array or Function inherit from the Object.prototype which remains on top of the chain.

 

- JavaScript uses dynamic type checking (checks the variables while the code executes), unlike Java’s static checking system (variables are verified at compile time), which is more bug free.

 

- The word “Script.” It’s a joke, in case you didn’t get it.

 

 

Nowadays, Android is not just on tens of thousands of different phones and tablets. It’s on your wrist, in your living room, in your car, and as soon we start assigning IP addresses to inanimate objects, it is going to be pretty much everywhere around us. A lot of ground for even an experienced Android developer to cover!

 

Also there are over one million apps on Google Play, not counting Amazon AppStore or markets we are not generally interested in.

 

So, how can an independent developer create a successful app in this huge market with big players? I have no idea, I haven’t made a successful app! But, I have made a cute one, and I’d like to share my story with you.

Few Android Studio Tips, Tricks & Resources you should be familiar with, as an Android Developer

The reason of this article, is to list helpful tips, tricks, shortcuts and resources for Android Studio that will improve your overall efficiency and performance.

 

1.Material Colors theme for Android Logcat

To change Android Studio Logcat you need to go to:Preferences (Settings on Windows / Linux machines) → Editor → Colors & Fonts → Android Logcat and change the foreground color for every type of log.

 

2. Prevent Android Studio Logcat from clearing the log for the current application when it crashes. 

To do that you need to go to theAndroid Monitorpanel and chooseEdit filter configurationon the right side dropdown.

 

3. Apply a proper code style to your IDE (IntelliJ / Android Studio). 

Go toPreferences → Code Style → Javaand in aSchemedropdown you can choose your code style (or set up a new one).

2 styles which are especially worth to mention:

Square Java Code Styles with Android

Google Java Code Style.

 

4. Use split screen for increasing efficiency.

To turn this feature on, you need to right mouse click on the tab of your main screen and choose Split Vertically / Horizontally feature.

But to be as efficient as possible we need to set up a custom keyboard’s shortcut. To do that go to Preferences → Keymap and search for Split Vertically. Then open a context menu and click Add Keyboard Shortcut

It is shown on a gif below. You can define the shortcut for a horizontal split view as well.

 

5. Distraction Free Mode. 

You can enable it by going to: View → Enter Distraction Free Mode

 

6. Use Live Templates

you can use many already defined templates, like for Toasts or if conditions.

you can use your own custom templates. Here is a great reference article by Reto Meier. You can also refer to the IntelliJ IDEA documentation.

 

Learn XML And Java

Extensible markup language (XML) is a markup language that’s the foundation for the Android user interface (UI) and elements. Java is the back-end coding language of the Android platform, and it’s used with binding functionality with your XML layouts. Let’s take a look at a small example.

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <layout xmlns:android=http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"> <data> <variable name="user" type="com.example.User"/> </data> <LinearLayout android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent"> <TextView android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@{user.firstName}"/> <TextView android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@{user.lastName}"/> </LinearLayout> </layout>

 

This small layout has one data object defined as “User.” For developers used to binding elements in even web design, this should be intuitive for you. The data element is defined in Java, and then the object data is bound to the front-end layout element. In this example, we have a first and last name. The following Java code is an example of a User class used for the binding.

 

public class User { public final String firstName; public final String lastName; public User (String firstName, String lastName){ this.firstName = firstName; this.lastName = lastName; } }

Notice that the constructor takes a first and last name variable and binds the data to the public class properties. When the screen opens on the device, this data is then bound to the front-end elements.

 

Before you get started in Android Application development, you should be expert in both of these technologies. Understanding the fundamentals of XML formats is relatively easy, but Java is an object-oriented language and object-oriented programming (OOP) can be challenging if you’re not familiar with the concept. A newer language and framework, Kotlin, has been introduced to help advance Android app development. It can also be used with legacy Java apps as Kotlin co-operates with Java code.

 

The best way to learn Java is to dive into someone else’s code. GitHub is filled with open-source projects that help you understand Java and OOP concepts. The better your OOP skills are, the easier it will be to create a better coded, less buggy Android app.

 

Understand Memory Limitations

Mobile devices don’t have the high memory limitations that desktops have. In mobile programming, you must learn to code with smaller memory limitations in mind. If you carelessly use memory on an Android device, you run the risk of your app crashing due to “out of memory” errors.

To work around this, use services on the device sparingly and release memory resources when your app is hidden. You can release memory resources by overriding the onTrimMemory event although you should know that this isn’t a magic solution that allows you to ignore other performance optimization throughout your code. The following is a small sample of pseudocode that shows you how to override the event.

@Override public void onTrimMemory(int level) { if (level >= TRIM_MEMORY_MODERATE) {

//release resources here } }

Google also recommends that you avoid or at least reduce the use of bitmaps to lower the memory use when your app is running on the device. 

 

Don’t Use The Emulator For Real-World Testing

The Emulator in Android Studio is good for development and even debugging, but it doesn’t fully simulate a working Android device. You can consider basic environment features with the Emulator, but when it comes to testing, you should always use actual devices.

Of course, this is a huge investment for an Android developer, but it will make the entire development and testing life cycle much more efficient. It also ensures that you’re able to test your applications in various conditions as the user changes settings on the actual device. You can, however, use automated cloud solutions such as Amazon’s Testing platform.

 

Testing should never be taken lightly. It should be a major part when you design and deploy apps for your clients. Fewer bugs means happier users, and it can also mean a more successful app in Google Play. This doesn’t mean that you need to buy every device on the market to test your app on, but you should account for some of the more popular ones and the most common screen sizes.

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