Benefits of paying in INR



Benefits of paying in INR

Freelance economy is at boom in entire world. A survey reveals freelancers are increasing on a rate of 9% every quarter and freelancing projects are increasing by 20% every year. Some other quick facts about freelancing: 

 

  • Countries with highest number of freelancers (Decreasing order): USA, India, Pakistan, UK, Italy, Philippines.
  • 65% of freelancers have their full time jobs too. They freelance for 2-5 hours every day.
  • Designing is the most popular niche having highest number of freelancers.
  • Total number of projects outsourced to freelancers is increasing by 20% every year.
  • Total money earned by freelancers in 2016 is $1 Trillion.
  • Total number of freelancers is increasing by 9% every quarter.
  • IT and programming experts are 41% of total hires.
  • 25% of today’s freelance jobs did not exist 10 years ago.

 

Now you know the fact that the best days of freelancing are still to come. There are some universal issues faced by freelancers all around the world. One of them is 'currency conversion'. How it works: When you freelance on an international marketplace, you will get paid in USD (more likely). Once you get paid, you will have to pay the website's commission and then you need to pay more in currency conversion. Then comes the taxes. This entire process is a big hurdle for so many freelancers. Toogit has applied a solution so that most freelancers won't face many issues; solution is setting the site's currency in INR. Let see why INR base is better for most freelancers and clients. 

Payment in USD

Toogit accepts USD payments equally as it accept INR payments. You can pay via paypal or any other method, this USD is then converted and shown in INR as per the exchange rates of the day. You would still see it as USD, it is only shown in INR on the website. 

 

Your benefits

Your benefits

By this INR based method, you will get many benefits along with the freelancer. Your benefits will be as follow: 

Your same project will be done in much less investment i.e 1 USD = 66.79INR (on March 1st, 2017). 100USD = 6679 INR. 

 Assume you have decided to invest $200 in a project, if you put this budget in INR, you can get the same project done in around $125. That saves you $75. 

You will have access to many more freelancers who are best in their niche but do not want to get into currency conversion troubles. 

 

 

Freelancer's benefits

If you are getting paid in INR, you get below benefits over USD payments: * Around 10% of payment goes in currency conversion after around 20% website'scommission (not Toogit's). That sums up a considerably higher amount spent in getting your own money in your account. * With this INR based payment, Toogit bears all the currency conversion charges and pays you in INR. Also Toogit's commission is only 8% without any additional cost. So the amount you were getting in a $200 project, you will still get the same amount (or more). In the meanwhile your client will also be able to save a considerable amount on the same project. It is a win win situation for both. * The INR currency can be directly transferred to your bank account from Toogit. So this is the basic idea behind INR based payments. If you have queries, suggestions or issues, write us at support@toogit.com.

 

 

Keep Toogitting:)

Dushyant Tyagi

Dushyant is a seasoned freelance writer, developer and start-up enthusiast. Apart from front and backend development, his passion for writing makes him an expert in blogging, content writing and generating quality web traffic.

Dushyant Tyagi | Freelance Writer


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Optimization deals with selecting the simplest option among a number of possible choices that are feasible or do not violate constraints. Python is used to optimize parameters in a model to best fit data, increase profitability of a possible engineering style, or meet another form of objective which will be described mathematically with variables and equations.

 

pyOpt is a Python-based package for formulating and solving nonlinear constrained optimization problems in an efficient, reusable and portable manner. Python programming uses object-oriented concepts, such as class inheritance and operator overloading, to maintain a distinct separation between the problem formulation and the optimization approach used to solve the problem.

 

All optimisation downside solvers inherit from the Optimizer abstract category. The category attributes include the solver name (name), an optimizer kind symbol (category), and dictionaries that contain the solver setup parameters (options) and message output settings (informs). The class provides ways to check and alter default solver parameters (getOption, setOption), as well as a method that runs the solver for a given optimisation problem (solve).

 

Optimization solver

A number of constrained optimization solvers are designed to solve the general nonlinear optimization problem.

  1. PSQP: This optimizer is a preconditioned sequential quadratic programming algorithm. This optimizer implements a sequential quadratic programming method with a BFGS variable metric update.
  2. SLSQP: This optimizer is a sequential least squares programming algorithm. SLSQP uses the Han–Powell quasi-Newton method with a BFGS update of the B-matrix and an L1-test function in the step-length algorithm. The optimizer uses a slightly modified version of Lawson and Hanson’s NNLS nonlinear least-squares solver.
  3. CONMIN: This optimizer implements the method of feasible directions. CONMIN solves the nonlinear programming problem by moving from one feasible point to an improved one by choosing at each iteration a feasible direction and step size that improves the objective function.
  4. COBYLA: It is an implementation of Powell’s nonlinear derivative–free constrained optimization that uses a linear approximation approach. The algorithm is a sequential trust–region algorithm that employs linear approximations to the objective and constraint functions.
  5. SOLVOPT: SOLVOPT is a modified version of Shor’s r–algorithm with space dilation to find a local minimum of nonlinear and non–smooth problems.
  6. KSOPT: This code reformulates the constrained problem into an unconstrained one using a composite Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser objective function to create an envelope of the objective function and set of constraints. The envelope function is then optimized using a sequential unconstrained minimization technique.
  7. NSGA2: This optimizer is a non-dominating sorting genetic algorithm that solves non-convex and non-smooth single and multiobjective optimization problems.
  8. ALGENCAN: It solves the general non-linear constrained optimization problem without resorting to the use of matrix manipulations. It uses instead an Augmented Lagrangian approach which is able to solve extremely large problems with moderate computer time.
  9. FILTERSD: It use of a Ritz values approach Linear Constraint Problem solver. Second derivatives and storage of an approximate reduced Hessian matrix is avoided using a limited memory spectral gradient approach based on Ritz values.

 

To solve an optimization problem with pyOpt an optimizer must be initialized. The initialization of one or more optimizers is independent of the initialization of any number of optimization problems. To initialize SLSQP, which is an open-source, sequential least squares programming algorithm that comes as part of the pyOpt package, use:

>>> slsqp = pyOpt.SLSQP()

This initializes an instance of SLSQP with the default options. The setOption method can be used to change any optimizer specific option, for example the internal output flag of SLSQP:

>>> slsqp.setOption('IPRINT', -1)

Now Schittkowski’s constrained problem can be solved using SLSQP and for example, pyOpt’s automatic finite difference for the gradients:

>>> [fstr, xstr, inform] = slsqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

By default, the solution information of an optimizer is also stored in the specific optimization problem. To output solution to the screen one can use:

>>> print opt_prob.solution(0)

 

Example:

The problem is taken from the set of nonlinear programming examples by Hock and Schittkowski and it is defined as

=======================================================================

      min            − x1x2x3

     x1,x2,x3

 

subjected to     x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 − 72 ≤ 0

                        − x1 − 2x2 − 2x3 ≤ 0

 

                        0 ≤ x1 ≤ 42

                        0 ≤ x2 ≤ 42

                        0 ≤ x3 ≤ 42

 

The optimum of this problem is at (x1∗ , x2∗ , x3* ) = (24, 12, 12), with an objective function value of f ∗ = −3456, and constraint values g (x∗ ) = (0, −72).

 

#======================================================================

# Standard Python modules

#======================================================================

import os, sys, time

import pdb

#======================================================================

# Extension modules

#======================================================================

#from pyOpt import *

from pyOpt import Optimization

from pyOpt import PSQP

from pyOpt import SLSQP

from pyOpt import CONMIN

from pyOpt import COBYLA

from pyOpt import SOLVOPT

from pyOpt import KSOPT

from pyOpt import NSGA2

from pyOpt import ALGENCAN

from pyOpt import FILTERSD

 

#======================================================================

def objfunc(x):

   

    f = -x[0]*x[1]*x[2]

    g = [0.0]*2

    g[0] = x[0] + 2.*x[1] + 2.*x[2] - 72.0

    g[1] = -x[0] - 2.*x[1] - 2.*x[2]

   

    fail = 0

    return f,g, fail  

 

#======================================================================

# Instantiate Optimization Problem

opt_prob = Optimization('Hock and Schittkowski Constrained Problem',objfunc)

opt_prob.addVar('x1','c',lower=0.0,upper=42.0,value=10.0)

opt_prob.addVar('x2','c',lower=0.0,upper=42.0,value=10.0)

opt_prob.addVar('x3','c',lower=0.0,upper=42.0,value=10.0)

opt_prob.addObj('f')

opt_prob.addCon('g1','i')

opt_prob.addCon('g2','i')

print opt_prob

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (PSQP) & Solve Problem

psqp = PSQP()

psqp.setOption('IPRINT',0)

psqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(0)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (SLSQP) & Solve Problem

slsqp = SLSQP()

slsqp.setOption('IPRINT',-1)

slsqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(1)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (CONMIN) & Solve Problem

conmin = CONMIN()

conmin.setOption('IPRINT',0)

conmin(opt_prob,sens_type='CS')

print opt_prob.solution(2)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (COBYLA) & Solve Problem

cobyla = COBYLA()

cobyla.setOption('IPRINT',0)

cobyla(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(3)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (SOLVOPT) & Solve Problem

solvopt = SOLVOPT()

solvopt.setOption('iprint',-1)

solvopt(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(4)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (KSOPT) & Solve Problem

ksopt = KSOPT()

ksopt.setOption('IPRINT',0)

ksopt(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

print opt_prob.solution(5)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (NSGA2) & Solve Problem

nsga2 = NSGA2()

nsga2.setOption('PrintOut',0)

nsga2(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(6)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (ALGENCAN) & Solve Problem

algencan = ALGENCAN()

algencan.setOption('iprint',0)

algencan(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(7)

 

# Instantiate Optimizer (FILTERSD) & Solve Problem

filtersd = FILTERSD()

filtersd.setOption('iprint',0)

filtersd(opt_prob)

print opt_prob.solution(8)

 

Solving non-linear global optimization problems could be tedious task sometimes. If the problem is not that complex then general purpose solvers could work. However, as the complexity of problem increases, general purpose global optimizers start to take time. That is when need to create your problem specific fast and direct global optimizer’s need arises.

 

We have an specialized team with PHD holders and coders to design and develop customized global optimizers. If you need help with one, please feel free to send your queries to us.

 

We first understand the problem and data by visualizing it. After that we create a solution to your needs.

 

Please do read to understand what a solver is and how it works - If you want to create your own simple solver. This is not exactly how every solver works, however, this will give you a pretty solid idea of what is a solver and how it is supposed to work.

New companies and the entrepreneurial impulse are key elements of the U.S. economy, and perhaps part of the nation’s mythology in the American dream. The U.S. federal agency in 2002 counted around twenty three million companies and nearly twenty four million business “establishments” that generated, in total, nearly $23 billion in sales. That’s if they make it. In a 2006 article entitled, “The Seven Pitfalls of Business Failure,” economic expert Brian Head of the small Business Administration noted that 30% new businesses fail inside the first five years of operation. However with careful coming up with, establishing a new company is a successful and profitable undertaking.

Steps for registering a new company

Choose your Company Location

Your company location determines the taxes, zoning laws, and regulations your company will be subject to. You will need to form a strategic decision regarding which state, city, and neighborhood you select to begin your company in. Where you locate your company depends in part on the location of your target market, business partners, and your personal preferences. In addition, you should consider the costs, benefits, and restrictions of different government agencies.

Choose right Company/Business type

The decision to choosing the right business structure is very important because the type of business you decide on influences everything from daily operations, to taxes, to how much of your personal assets are at risk.

  • Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship is easy to form and gives you complete control of your business. You're automatically considered to be a sole proprietorship if you do business activities but don't register as any other kind of business. Sole proprietorship do not produce a separate business entity. This means your business assets and liabilities are not separate from your personal assets and liabilities. You can be held personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business. Sole proprietors can also be hard to raise money because you can't sell stock, and banks are hesitant to lend to sole proprietorship.
  • Partnership: Partnerships are the best structure for two or more people to possess a business together. There are two common forms of partnerships: limited partnerships (LP) and limited liability partnerships (LLP).
    • Limited partnerships have only one general partner with unlimited liability, and all other partners have limited liability. The partners with limited liability also tend to have limited control over the company, which is documented in a partnership agreement.
    • Limited liability partnerships are similar to limited partnerships, but give limited liability to every owner. An LLP protects every partner from debts against the partnership, they won't be responsible for the actions of other partners.
  • Limited liability Company (LLC): LLCs protect you from personal liability in most instances, your personal assets like your vehicle, house, and savings accounts won't be at risk in case your LLC faces bankruptcy or lawsuits. Profits and losses can get passed through to your personal income without facing corporate taxes. LLCs can be a good choice for medium- or higher-risk businesses, owners with significant personal assets they want to be protected, and owners who want to pay a lower tax rate than they would with a corporation.
  • Corporation: The incorporation process is more complicated than the other two options but will have many potential benefits for your on-line business. One of the most notable differences regarding this structure is that the corporation becomes a separate entity from you as the owner. This means you’re not in person financially liable for what happens to the corporation, and your personal assets are protected from the liabilities created by your shop. When your store grows and the liabilities you’re exposed to grow with it this is a huge benefit.

Choose your Company Name

You can find the right business name with creativity and market research. Once you’ve picked your name, you should protect it by registering it with the right agencies.

You’ll want to decide on a business name that reflects your brand identity and doesn’t clash with the types of goods and services you provide. Once you take decision on a name you prefer, you would like to protect it. There are four different ways to register your company name. Every way of registering your name serves a special purpose, and some may be legally required depending on your business structure and location.

  • Entity name protects you at state level
  • Trademark protects you at a federal level
  • Doing Business as (DBA) doesn’t give legal protection, but might be legally required
  • Domain name protects your business web site address

Each of those name registrations are legally independent. Most small businesses try to use an equivalent name for each kind of registration, but you’re not commonly required to.

Register your Company

Register your business to make it a distinct legal entity. How and where you need to register depends on your business structure and business location.

Your location and business structure determine how you’ll need to register your business. Verify those factors first, and registration becomes terribly easy. In some cases, you don’t need to register at all. If you conduct business as yourself using your legal name, you won’t need to register anywhere. But keep in mind, if you don’t register your business, you'll miss out on personal liability protection, legal benefits, and tax benefits.

Most businesses don't need to register with the federal government to become a legal entity, other than simply filing to get a federal tax ID. Small businesses sometimes register with the federal government for trademark protection or tax exempt status. If you would like to trademark your business, brand or product name, file with the United States Patent and Trademark office once you’ve formed your business. If you would like tax-exempt status for a noncommercial corporation, register your business as a tax-exempt entity with the IRS.

Get Employee Identity Number or State Tax ID

Getting an EIN number can help you identify your business entity. Most companies need this federal employee identification number to conduct business. An EIN is a nine-digit number that refers to only your business or non-profit entity. It is your business’s social security number. This number allows the IRS to identify your business and attach it to the correct business name for tax purposes. Just a unique business name is not enough.

Your employer identification number (EIN) is your federal tax ID. You need it to pay federal taxes, hire employees, open a bank account, and apply for business licenses and permits. You should do it right once you register your business. Your business desires a federal tax ID number if it does any of the following:

  • Pays employees
  • Operates as an organization of partnership
  • Files tax returns for employment, excise, or alcohol, tobacco, and firearms
  • Withholds taxes on income, other than wages, paid to a non-resident alien
  • Works with certain types of organizations

The need for a state tax ID number ties directly to whether your business must pay state taxes. Sometimes, you can use state tax ID numbers for other functions, like protection against identity theft for sole proprietors. Tax obligations differ at the state and local levels, so you'll need to check with your state's websites. To know whether you need a state tax ID, research and understand your state's laws regarding income taxes and employment taxes, the two most common forms of state taxes for small businesses.

Apply for Licenses

Most small businesses need a combination of licenses and permits from both federal and state agencies. The requirements and charges vary based on your business activities, location, and government rules.

The licenses and permits you need from the state, county, or city will depend on your business activities and business location. Your business license fees will vary. States tend to regulate a broader range of activities than the centralized. As an example, business activities that are commonly regulated domestically include auctions, construction, and dry cleaning, farming, plumbing, restaurants, retail, and vending machines.

Some licenses and permits expire after a set period of time. Keep close track of when you need to renew them it's usually easier to renew than it has to apply for a new one. You'll have to analysis your own state, county, and city regulations. Industry requirements usually vary by state.

Special Bank Account for your Company

Open a business account once you are ready to start accepting or spending money as your business. A business bank account helps you keep legally compliant and protected. It also provides benefits to your customers and employees. Most business bank accounts provide perks that don't come with a standard personal bank account.

  • Protection: Business banking offers limited personal liability protection by keeping your business funds separate from your personal funds. Merchant services also offer purchase protection for your customers and ensures that their personal information is secure.
  • Professionalism: Customers will be able to pay you with credit cards and make checks out to your business instead of directly to you.
  • Preparedness: Business banking usually comes with the option for a line of credit for the company. This can be used in the event of an emergency, or if your business needs new equipment.
  • Purchasing power: Credit card accounts can help your business make large startup purchases and help establish a credit history for your business.

Get Business Insurance

Business insurance coverage protects businesses from losses due to events that may occur during the normal course of business. There are many types of insurance for businesses including coverage for property damage, legal liability and employee-related risks. Companies evaluate their insurance needs based on potential risks, which can vary depending on the type of environment in which the company operates.

Business insurance protects you from the unexpected costs of running a business. Accidents, natural disasters, and lawsuits could run you out of business if you’re not protected with the right insurance.

Speak to insurance agents to find out what kinds of coverage makes sense for your business, and compare terms and prices to find the best deal for you. Here are six common kinds of business insurance types are:

  • General liability insurance
  • Product liability insurance
  • Professional liability insurance
  • Commercial property insurance
  • Home-based business insurance
  • Business owner’s policy

The global demand for data Science professionals is extremely high because of increasing relevance across various sectors. Data Science has become the most-sought skill because the data is piling along with a surge in different tech fields like Artificial Intelligence, machine learning and data Analytics. Hiring data scientist is being carried across numerous domains like e-commerce, education, retail, telecommunication and much more.

 

In the past years, analysts used excel tools to analyze data. Things are changing now! In this modern world, data-driven decision making is sparkling and technology is advanced in the data industry. The tools and technologies that modern Data Scientists employ are a combination of statistical and Machine Learning algorithms. They are used to discover patterns using predictive models. The future of Data Science is bright and the options for its implementation are extensive.

 

Data Scientists must consistently evolve at the edge of innovation and creativity. They must be aware of the types of models they create. These innovations will allow them to spend time discovering new things that may be of value. Subsequently, the advances in Data Science tools will help leverage existing Data Science talent to a greater extent.

 

So what does a Data Scientist do?

Data Scientists influence a pile of data in an innovative way to discover valuable trends and insights. This approach helps to identify opportunities by implementing research and management tools to optimize business processes by reducing the risks. Data Scientists are also responsible for designing and implementing processes for data mining, research and modeling purposes.

 

Data scientist performs research and analyses data and help companies flourish by predicting growth, trends and business insights based on a large amount of data. Basically, data scientists are massive data wranglers. They take a vast data and use their skills in mathematics, statistics and programming to scrub and organize the information. All their analysis combined with industrial knowledge helps to uncover hidden solutions to business challenges.

 

Generally, a data scientist needs to know what could be the output of the big data he/she is analyzing. He/she also needs to have a clearly defined plan on how the output can be achieved with the available resources and time. Most of all the data scientists must know the reason behind his attempt to analyze the big data.

 

To achieve all of the above, a data scientist may be required to:

 

Every organization has unique data problems with its own complexities. Solving different Data Science problems requires different skill sets. Data Science teams are groups of professionals with varied skill sets. They, as a team, solve some of the hardest data problems an organization might face. Each member contributes distinctive skill set required to complete a Data Science project from start to finish.

 

The Career Opportunities:

The careers associated with data science are generally categorized into five.

 

  1. Statisticians: Statisticians work usually for national governments, marketing research firms and research institutes. Extracting information from massive databases through numerous statistical procedures is what they do.
  2. Data Analyst: Telecommunication companies, manufacturing companies, financial companies etc. hire data scientists to analyze their data. A data analyst keeps track of various factors affecting company operation and make visual graphics.
  3. Big Data and Data Mining Engineer: Tech companies, retail companies and recreation companies use data scientists as data mining engineers. They have to gather and analyze huge amounts of data, typically from unstructured information.
  4. Business Intelligence Reporting Professional: They work for tech companies, financial companies, and consulting companies etc. Market research is the primary objective of this job. They also generate various reports from the structured data to improve the business.
  5. Project Manager: A project manager evaluates data and insights fetched from the operational departments and influences the business decisions. They have to plan the work and make sure everything goes in accordance with the plan.

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