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Liani Agdan Senior Software Engineer, Philippines
$20 /hr
8 Years Exp.
I am a skilled software engineer (PHP developer) having 10+ years of experience in software development, capable of agile project management and devop...Read More
Charles O.Full Stack PHP Developer, Mauritius
5 Years Exp.
I am a passionate web developer with over 5 years of experience in PHP OOP development. I also have average level skills in using Django/REST API, .NE...Read More
Jugal K.Fullstack Developer, India
$20 /hr
4 Years Exp.
With an experience of more than 4 years in the field of web development in open source technologies I have expertise working with Laravel, CodeIgniter...Read More
Marlu C.Android Developer, Philippines
$5 /hr
3 Years Exp.
Im a freelance android developer who looks forward for clients to work with and to grow my experience along the way.
Ahana M.Business online, India
$98 /hr
0 Years Exp.
I am housewife study at 12
Gideon G.Software Developer, India
$26 /hr
3 Years Exp.
I am experienced in developing android apps since 3 years.I have interacted with many of the business concepts to convert it into the real world app....Read More
Lukman N.Web Developer, Bangladesh
$35 /hr
2 Years Exp.
I am a passionate PHP developer . I have worked with UK company for more then a year ,worked with different types of client. Always try to be update...Read More
Vijay N.wordpress Plugin l wordpress Theme l Woocommerce, India
$25 /hr
4 Years Exp.
I am a professional WordPress developer having more than 4 years of experience in web design and development. My core strength is into WordPress Websi...Read More
Niharika J.PHP developer , India
$0 /hr
2 Years Exp.
Work in codeigintor framework also in corephp and laravel framework
Ar D.Web Developer, India
$3 /hr
3 Years Exp.
Experienced PHP Developer with a demonstrated history of working in the computer software industry. Skilled in Core Java, Matlab, Java Web Services, C...Read More
I am a Senior PHP and CMS WordPress, Drupal and Magento) developer with Laravel , CodeIgniter, Angularjs with a Bachelor of Science(B.S.) in Computer...Read More
Manisekaran C.Wordpress Security Experts, India
$30 /hr
0 Years Exp.
Are you looking for a WP Experts with: • 10 years of hands-on experience in WP Development & WP Security. • Knowledge of the latest technology i...Read More
Harshvardhan S.PHP (Laravel) Developer, India
$5 /hr
1 Years Exp.
Currently, I'm a laravel intern at kaushalam pvt ltd. During my time at the company, I with my team create an e-commerce web store in Laravel &am...Read More
Narendra G.Full-Stack Web Developer, India
$45 /hr
3 Years Exp.
I am a certified full stack web developer with PHP as core language. I prefer using codeigniter as PHP framework. Experience = 3+ years.
Piyush S.Web developer, India
$20 /hr
3 Years Exp.
Having experience 3 years in a professional company
Mkr K.Fullstack web developer , India
$15 /hr
7 Years Exp.
Codeigniter : 5 years and more than 100 big projects delivered
Rituparna Biswas Senior Software Developer, India
$8 /hr
9 Years Exp.
Hi, myself Rituparna, B-Tech at Computer Science with 9+ years of Web Development experience at PHP-MySql, Jquery, JavaScript, AJAX, HTML, XML, CSS, Y...Read More
Deepa Web Developer, India
$0 /hr
4 Years Exp.
I have done BE in Information technology. i have 4.5 yrs of experience in web development.
Deepak D.PHP Developer, India
$11 /hr
6 Years Exp.
I am a PHP developer with 6+ years of experience, have knowledge of CakePHP, Codeiginitor, Zend, Laravel, YII.
Vinay Pal Software Developer, SEO Expert, India
$100 /hr
3 Years Exp.
I am certified PHP developer works on code igniter and has an experience of more than 3 years.
Rakesh P.Software Developer, India
$13 /hr
5 Years Exp.
5 years of experience in software development. ASP.net professional with good understanding of product design. Worked on development of Travel ,Financ...Read More
Saroj D.Web Developer, India
$0 /hr
4 Years Exp.
I am a php Developer having 4 year's of experience.
Mayank Software | Web Developer, India
$5 /hr
5 Years Exp.
I am a full stack developer having 5+ years of exp. Good in 3rd party API Integration and development, this includes both SOAP & REST. Never blind...Read More
Ankita M.Developer and administrator, India
$100 /hr
1 Years Exp.
I am a certified Php developer with 1 yr experience and also have a admin and counselor experience
Shikhu Content Development, India
$2 /hr
4 Years Exp.
I am an engineer with good command on cpp programming. I have done content development of mathematics and computers and have taught students mathemati...Read More
Rajani Freelance Web Developer , India
$7 /hr
8 Years Exp.
I am expert in Web Design and Development using PHP and Laravel .
Anmol M.Web Developer, India
$20 /hr
1 Years Exp.
I am a Web Developer with 1 year of experience and a tech geek who loves learning new technologies
Fullstack D.Full Stack developer , India
$10 /hr
5 Years Exp.
I have 4+ years experience in Website development. I have been working with Magento from last few years and have customized Magento themes, built exte...Read More
Vivek Berwal Web developer, India
$10 /hr
4 Years Exp.
A geek web developer. Expertise in core php , javascript,jquery,mysql,xml. Strong logics - can find workarounds for almost every situation that is l...Read More
Nibin Baby Software professional, India
$55 /hr
3 Years Exp.
Welcome, I'm a professional Full stack web Developer who loves to take challenge. My experience is to create engaging, aesthetically pleasing,...Read More
Jitesh K.PHP Engineer, India
$15 /hr
5 Years Exp.
Hi I am a PHP developer who has more than 5 years of experience in this field. I worked on WordPress, Drupal, Codeigniter, CorePHP. I can assure...Read More
Ankur G.Web Application Developer, India
$8 /hr
8 Years Exp.
I am a PHP Developer with 8+ year of experience. I work on Your framework and can also develop custom wordpress themes and plugins.
Sushil Kumar Project Manager, India
$8 /hr
6 Years Exp.
I am professional Web & Mobile App designer & developer with 5 yrs experience. My Expertise WordPress (PSD to WordPress, Custom plugin, custom...Read More
Atul K.Team Lead, India
$13 /hr
8 Years Exp.
Hi, I am a web designer & developer who specialize in creating dynamic and beautiful web pages. I have been in the field for nearly 10 years, and...Read More
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Articles Related To Object Oriented Design

Nowadays, Android is not just on tens of thousands of different phones and tablets. It’s on your wrist, in your living room, in your car, and as soon we start assigning IP addresses to inanimate objects, it is going to be pretty much everywhere around us. A lot of ground for even an experienced Android developer to cover!


Also there are over one million apps on Google Play, not counting Amazon AppStore or markets we are not generally interested in.


So, how can an independent developer create a successful app in this huge market with big players? I have no idea, I haven’t made a successful app! But, I have made a cute one, and I’d like to share my story with you.

Few Android Studio Tips, Tricks & Resources you should be familiar with, as an Android Developer

The reason of this article, is to list helpful tips, tricks, shortcuts and resources for Android Studio that will improve your overall efficiency and performance.


1.Material Colors theme for Android Logcat

To change Android Studio Logcat you need to go to:Preferences (Settings on Windows / Linux machines) → Editor → Colors & Fonts → Android Logcat and change the foreground color for every type of log.


2. Prevent Android Studio Logcat from clearing the log for the current application when it crashes. 

To do that you need to go to theAndroid Monitorpanel and chooseEdit filter configurationon the right side dropdown.


3. Apply a proper code style to your IDE (IntelliJ / Android Studio). 

Go toPreferences → Code Style → Javaand in aSchemedropdown you can choose your code style (or set up a new one).

2 styles which are especially worth to mention:

Square Java Code Styles with Android

Google Java Code Style.


4. Use split screen for increasing efficiency.

To turn this feature on, you need to right mouse click on the tab of your main screen and choose Split Vertically / Horizontally feature.

But to be as efficient as possible we need to set up a custom keyboard’s shortcut. To do that go to Preferences → Keymap and search for Split Vertically. Then open a context menu and click Add Keyboard Shortcut

It is shown on a gif below. You can define the shortcut for a horizontal split view as well.


5. Distraction Free Mode. 

You can enable it by going to: View → Enter Distraction Free Mode


6. Use Live Templates

you can use many already defined templates, like for Toasts or if conditions.

you can use your own custom templates. Here is a great reference article by Reto Meier. You can also refer to the IntelliJ IDEA documentation.


Learn XML And Java

Extensible markup language (XML) is a markup language that’s the foundation for the Android user interface (UI) and elements. Java is the back-end coding language of the Android platform, and it’s used with binding functionality with your XML layouts. Let’s take a look at a small example.


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <layout xmlns:android=http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"> <data> <variable name="user" type="com.example.User"/> </data> <LinearLayout android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent"> <TextView android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@{user.firstName}"/> <TextView android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@{user.lastName}"/> </LinearLayout> </layout>


This small layout has one data object defined as “User.” For developers used to binding elements in even web design, this should be intuitive for you. The data element is defined in Java, and then the object data is bound to the front-end layout element. In this example, we have a first and last name. The following Java code is an example of a User class used for the binding.


public class User { public final String firstName; public final String lastName; public User (String firstName, String lastName){ this.firstName = firstName; this.lastName = lastName; } }

Notice that the constructor takes a first and last name variable and binds the data to the public class properties. When the screen opens on the device, this data is then bound to the front-end elements.


Before you get started in Android Application development, you should be expert in both of these technologies. Understanding the fundamentals of XML formats is relatively easy, but Java is an object-oriented language and object-oriented programming (OOP) can be challenging if you’re not familiar with the concept. A newer language and framework, Kotlin, has been introduced to help advance Android app development. It can also be used with legacy Java apps as Kotlin co-operates with Java code.


The best way to learn Java is to dive into someone else’s code. GitHub is filled with open-source projects that help you understand Java and OOP concepts. The better your OOP skills are, the easier it will be to create a better coded, less buggy Android app.


Understand Memory Limitations

Mobile devices don’t have the high memory limitations that desktops have. In mobile programming, you must learn to code with smaller memory limitations in mind. If you carelessly use memory on an Android device, you run the risk of your app crashing due to “out of memory” errors.

To work around this, use services on the device sparingly and release memory resources when your app is hidden. You can release memory resources by overriding the onTrimMemory event although you should know that this isn’t a magic solution that allows you to ignore other performance optimization throughout your code. The following is a small sample of pseudocode that shows you how to override the event.

@Override public void onTrimMemory(int level) { if (level >= TRIM_MEMORY_MODERATE) {

//release resources here } }

Google also recommends that you avoid or at least reduce the use of bitmaps to lower the memory use when your app is running on the device. 


Don’t Use The Emulator For Real-World Testing

The Emulator in Android Studio is good for development and even debugging, but it doesn’t fully simulate a working Android device. You can consider basic environment features with the Emulator, but when it comes to testing, you should always use actual devices.

Of course, this is a huge investment for an Android developer, but it will make the entire development and testing life cycle much more efficient. It also ensures that you’re able to test your applications in various conditions as the user changes settings on the actual device. You can, however, use automated cloud solutions such as Amazon’s Testing platform.


Testing should never be taken lightly. It should be a major part when you design and deploy apps for your clients. Fewer bugs means happier users, and it can also mean a more successful app in Google Play. This doesn’t mean that you need to buy every device on the market to test your app on, but you should account for some of the more popular ones and the most common screen sizes.

Optimization deals with selecting the simplest option among a number of possible choices that are feasible or do not violate constraints. Python is used to optimize parameters in a model to best fit data, increase profitability of a possible engineering style, or meet another form of objective which will be described mathematically with variables and equations.


pyOpt is a Python-based package for formulating and solving nonlinear constrained optimization problems in an efficient, reusable and portable manner. Python programming uses object-oriented concepts, such as class inheritance and operator overloading, to maintain a distinct separation between the problem formulation and the optimization approach used to solve the problem.


All optimisation downside solvers inherit from the Optimizer abstract category. The category attributes include the solver name (name), an optimizer kind symbol (category), and dictionaries that contain the solver setup parameters (options) and message output settings (informs). The class provides ways to check and alter default solver parameters (getOption, setOption), as well as a method that runs the solver for a given optimisation problem (solve).


Optimization solver

A number of constrained optimization solvers are designed to solve the general nonlinear optimization problem.

  1. PSQP: This optimizer is a preconditioned sequential quadratic programming algorithm. This optimizer implements a sequential quadratic programming method with a BFGS variable metric update.
  2. SLSQP: This optimizer is a sequential least squares programming algorithm. SLSQP uses the Han–Powell quasi-Newton method with a BFGS update of the B-matrix and an L1-test function in the step-length algorithm. The optimizer uses a slightly modified version of Lawson and Hanson’s NNLS nonlinear least-squares solver.
  3. CONMIN: This optimizer implements the method of feasible directions. CONMIN solves the nonlinear programming problem by moving from one feasible point to an improved one by choosing at each iteration a feasible direction and step size that improves the objective function.
  4. COBYLA: It is an implementation of Powell’s nonlinear derivative–free constrained optimization that uses a linear approximation approach. The algorithm is a sequential trust–region algorithm that employs linear approximations to the objective and constraint functions.
  5. SOLVOPT: SOLVOPT is a modified version of Shor’s r–algorithm with space dilation to find a local minimum of nonlinear and non–smooth problems.
  6. KSOPT: This code reformulates the constrained problem into an unconstrained one using a composite Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser objective function to create an envelope of the objective function and set of constraints. The envelope function is then optimized using a sequential unconstrained minimization technique.
  7. NSGA2: This optimizer is a non-dominating sorting genetic algorithm that solves non-convex and non-smooth single and multiobjective optimization problems.
  8. ALGENCAN: It solves the general non-linear constrained optimization problem without resorting to the use of matrix manipulations. It uses instead an Augmented Lagrangian approach which is able to solve extremely large problems with moderate computer time.
  9. FILTERSD: It use of a Ritz values approach Linear Constraint Problem solver. Second derivatives and storage of an approximate reduced Hessian matrix is avoided using a limited memory spectral gradient approach based on Ritz values.


To solve an optimization problem with pyOpt an optimizer must be initialized. The initialization of one or more optimizers is independent of the initialization of any number of optimization problems. To initialize SLSQP, which is an open-source, sequential least squares programming algorithm that comes as part of the pyOpt package, use:

>>> slsqp = pyOpt.SLSQP()

This initializes an instance of SLSQP with the default options. The setOption method can be used to change any optimizer specific option, for example the internal output flag of SLSQP:

>>> slsqp.setOption('IPRINT', -1)

Now Schittkowski’s constrained problem can be solved using SLSQP and for example, pyOpt’s automatic finite difference for the gradients:

>>> [fstr, xstr, inform] = slsqp(opt_prob,sens_type='FD')

By default, the solution information of an optimizer is also stored in the specific optimization problem. To output solution to the screen one can use:

>>> print opt_prob.solution(0)



The problem is taken from the set of nonlinear programming examples by Hock and Schittkowski and it is defined as


      min            − x1x2x3



subjected to     x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 − 72 ≤ 0

                        − x1 − 2x2 − 2x3 ≤ 0


                        0 ≤ x1 ≤ 42

                        0 ≤ x2 ≤ 42

                        0 ≤ x3 ≤ 42


The optimum of this problem is at (x1∗ , x2∗ , x3* ) = (24, 12, 12), with an objective function value of f ∗ = −3456, and constraint values g (x∗ ) = (0, −72).



# Standard Python modules


import os, sys, time

import pdb


# Extension modules


#from pyOpt import *

from pyOpt import Optimization

from pyOpt import PSQP

from pyOpt import SLSQP

from pyOpt import CONMIN

from pyOpt import COBYLA

from pyOpt import SOLVOPT

from pyOpt import KSOPT

from pyOpt import NSGA2

from pyOpt import ALGENCAN

from pyOpt import FILTERSD



def objfunc(x):


    f = -x[0]*x[1]*x[2]

    g = [0.0]*2

    g[0] = x[0] + 2.*x[1] + 2.*x[2] - 72.0

    g[1] = -x[0] - 2.*x[1] - 2.*x[2]


    fail = 0

    return f,g, fail  



# Instantiate Optimization Problem

opt_prob = Optimization('Hock and Schittkowski Constrained Problem',objfunc)







print opt_prob


# Instantiate Optimizer (PSQP) & Solve Problem

psqp = PSQP()



print opt_prob.solution(0)


# Instantiate Optimizer (SLSQP) & Solve Problem

slsqp = SLSQP()



print opt_prob.solution(1)


# Instantiate Optimizer (CONMIN) & Solve Problem

conmin = CONMIN()



print opt_prob.solution(2)


# Instantiate Optimizer (COBYLA) & Solve Problem

cobyla = COBYLA()



print opt_prob.solution(3)


# Instantiate Optimizer (SOLVOPT) & Solve Problem

solvopt = SOLVOPT()



print opt_prob.solution(4)


# Instantiate Optimizer (KSOPT) & Solve Problem

ksopt = KSOPT()



print opt_prob.solution(5)


# Instantiate Optimizer (NSGA2) & Solve Problem

nsga2 = NSGA2()



print opt_prob.solution(6)


# Instantiate Optimizer (ALGENCAN) & Solve Problem

algencan = ALGENCAN()



print opt_prob.solution(7)


# Instantiate Optimizer (FILTERSD) & Solve Problem

filtersd = FILTERSD()



print opt_prob.solution(8)


Solving non-linear global optimization problems could be tedious task sometimes. If the problem is not that complex then general purpose solvers could work. However, as the complexity of problem increases, general purpose global optimizers start to take time. That is when need to create your problem specific fast and direct global optimizer’s need arises.


We have an specialized team with PHD holders and coders to design and develop customized global optimizers. If you need help with one, please feel free to send your queries to us.


We first understand the problem and data by visualizing it. After that we create a solution to your needs.


Please do read to understand what a solver is and how it works - If you want to create your own simple solver. This is not exactly how every solver works, however, this will give you a pretty solid idea of what is a solver and how it is supposed to work.

Python and Java both lay claims to being among the top five most popular programming languages at any given time, with Java usually just ahead of Python. However, Python’s popularity is growing at a tremendous rate, and Python overtake Java in 2018.


Python is a high-level, interpreted, interactive and object-oriented scripting language. Python was designed to be highly readable which uses English keywords frequently whereas other languages use punctuation and it has fewer syntactical constructions than other languages.


Java and Python have many similarities. Both languages have strong cross-platform support and extensive standard libraries. They both treat (nearly) everything as objects. Both languages compile to bytecode, but Python is (usually) compiled at runtime.


Python versus Java:

  1. Java language is more about syntax, if one can forget to add curly braces or semicolon in the end then this will show error as your output. But there is nothing like that with python there is no need of semicolon and curly braces in the end but python follows indentation process so that it will make your code readable.
  2. Java programming is statically typed means that one has to explicitly mention the data type of variable. If datatype (int, float, double, character) isn’t mentioned then the error can occur in program. Python is dynamically typed means if one has directly assigned a value to a variable at the runtime then it'll assume data type.
  3. Java codes are more complex than python codes. Try to write a hello world program in both then you'll observe the complexness of the code, four lines of code in Java and same hello world program in python are of 1-line code.
  4. Python has a large and robust standard library makes Python score over other programming languages. The standard library allows you to choose from a wide range of modules according to your precise needs. Each module further enables you to add functionality to the Python application without writing additional code.
  5. Python is an open source programing language, Python helps you to curtail software system development cost significantly. You’ll even use many open source Python frameworks, libraries and development tools to curtail development time without increasing development cost. You even have choice to select from a wide range of open source Python frameworks and development tools per your precise needs.
  6. Interpreted, with tools like IDLE, you can also interpret Python instead of compiling it. While this reduces the program length, and boosts productivity, it also results in slower overall execution.
  7. Python is considered to be the most favorable language for Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, IoT and much more.
  8. Python has a more unified support model than Java for the first time, and open source developers are focusing their efforts on the latest version of the language.
  9. After working on large projects in both languages, I feel secure saying that Python’s syntax is more concise than Java’s. It’s easier to get up and running quickly with a new project in Python than it is in Java.
  10. The most two popular frameworks for Python are Django and Flask. Flask is a micro web framework, it gives you the basic functionalities you’d need like routing requests without much overhead. Django is a more featured option and can help you build a powerful backend while capitalizing on efficiency and security, Django is equipped with a powerful ORM layer which facilitates dealing databases and performing different operations on the data.

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